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Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy, Resident Progenitor Cells and the role of Cellular Signalling; a Review

Introduction CVD is the most prevalent mortality type worldwide, with an approximate 31% of deaths related to some form of CVD in 2016 [ 1 ]. In addition, it is estimated in Europe that CVD is the cause of 45% of deaths per year [ 2 ]. Two of the main risk factors in development of cardiovascular disease are obesity, stemming from poor diet, lack of physical activity, and smoking. These lifestyle choices can lead to hypertension, high blood cholesterol, atherosclerosis, all increasing likelihood of CVD. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that over

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Cardiovascular Risk Factors In 7–13 Years Old Children From Vojvodina (Serbia)

Summary

Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease.

Methods: Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7-13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk.

Results: The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS.

Conclusions: The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the change able risk factors.

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The impact of obesity to antioxidant defense parameters in adolescents with increased cardiovascular risk

documented that oxidative stress is strongly related to inflammatory processes in obesity. Adipose tissue secretes pro-inflammatory citokines such as: tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 ( 12 ). The goal of this study was to analyze the oxidative stress status of obese students with and without increased risk for cardiovascular events (CVD) through the values of antioxidant parameters: super-oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and total antioxidant status (TAS). In addition, the aim was to determine

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Body composition of Slovak midlife women with cardiovascular complications

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse differences in body composition of women with and without cardiovascular complications. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101) and tissue electric properties were analysed by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA). The clinical sample (with CVD) consisted of 254 women ranging in age between 39 and 65 years. The sample of women without CVD consisted of 318 women in the same age range and was created from database of our previous studies. Statistical analysis adjusted for age showed significant differences in body composition characteristics of the studied samples. The results of vector analysis showed significantly different tissue electric properties of women in studied groups, what was confirmed by the Hotelling T2- test (p=0.0000). More women with CVD attained risky mean values of obesity indices of BMI and WHR than their “healthy” counterparts. Among women with CVD 80.2% had higher value of the BMI index than optimal one (>24.9 kg/m2) and 74.4% of women had higher value of the WHR index than optimal (>0.80). From the BIA parameters strong correlation coefficient was found between BMI and FM in both groups (r=0.962 for women with CVD; r=0.968 for relatively healthy women). Our data confirmed that cardiovascular disease complications are strongly linked in body composition changes. The cross-sectional nature of our study makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding causal pathways, though variables of obesity are in line with unhealthy conditions.

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Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

References 1. Goodarzi M, Carmina E, Azziz R. DHEA, DHEAS and PCOS. J Ster Bioch 2015; 145: 213–25. 2. World Health Organisation, Global Health Observatory data, Mortality and morbidity, Cardiovascular diseases [04.09.2016.], http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/mortality_morbidity/cvd/en/ . 3. Birdsall MA, Farquhar CM, White HD. Association between polycystic ovaries and extent of coronary artery disease in women having cardiac catheterization. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 32–5. 4. Legro RS. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease: A

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Detection of lipoprotein X (LPX) – a challenge in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia

Introduction Severe hypercholesterolaemia with a total cholesterol (TC) concentration above 25 mmol/L (∼1000 mg/dL) is an extremely rare condition. The most widely recognised cause is homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) presenting with an increased level of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated advanced cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 1 ). However, severe hypercholesterolaemia may also be unrelated to increased LDL-C, resulting instead from the presence of an abnormal lipoprotein fraction – lipoprotein X (LpX) ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). LpX is most

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Is dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis associated with the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndrome?

. Abbreviations IMA: Ischemia Modified Albumin, WBC: White Blood Cell The comorbidity distribution of the MDS patients included hypertension in 67.5% (n: 52), cardiac disease in 32.5% (n: 26), thyroid disease in 13.8% (n: 11), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 13.8% (n: 11), renal disease in 10% (n: 8), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in 5% (n: 4), and collagen tissue disease in 5% (n: 4). It was found that 6.3% of the MDS patients had solid MDS, 31.3% had MDS with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS), 20% had MDS with multilineage dysplasia (MDS-MLD), 25% had

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The relationship between adult stature and longevity: tall men are unlikely to outlive their short peers – evidence from a study of all adult deaths in Poland in the years 2004–2008

Abstract

Early epidemiological studies demonstrated that short stature is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, lower energy intake or food deprivation during growth, poor health, and increased all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, the links between adult height and longevity become tenuous if certain confounders (e.g. BMI, SES, educational attainment, etc.) are allowed for. Furthermore, numerous studies have found that like excess weight, tallness is costly in terms of longevity in late ontogeny, and shorter people tend to outlive their taller peers, especially if they are slim and maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle. Therefore, there is currently a lack of agreement in the literature as to whether and how body height and lifespan are linked. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between adult stature and longevity on the basis of a large sample from a population-based cohort study. Data on declared height and exact dates of birth and death were available from 480,493 men and 364,666 women who died in the years 2004-2008 in Poland. To control for secular changes, the sample was divided into fifteen birth cohorts and each group was subsequently split into five height categories using pentiles, separately for both sexes. The analysis has revealed an inverse relationship between height and lifespan in men and women. However, after controlling for secular changes in height, the relationship turned out to be very weak and linear in men, and inverted U-shaped in women. In general, taller individuals had lower age at death compared to shorter ones, and this relationship was more pronounced and consistent in men. To sum up, these findings do not comport with the traditional belief that taller individuals live longer. The role of several possible biological mechanisms pertinent to enhanced longevity in smaller individuals was emphasized, and these biological factors were discussed.

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Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among type 2 diabetic mellitus Syrian patients according to NCEP-ATP III and IDF diagnostic criteria

Abstract

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important group of components responsible of high incidence of cardio-vascular disease (CVD) and stroke among the type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) patients. Studies on the prevalence of the MetS and its components among DM patients are limited in developing countries and such studies never been done in Syria before. The objectives of current study were two-folds: (a) to investigate the prevalence of MetS in a group of DM Syrian patients as defined by NCEP-ATP III and IDF diagnostic criteria, and (b) to identify the individual MetS associated risk factors components in the studied group. A cross-sectional study carried out at one of the diabetic clinics of the health ministry in Damascus, Syria between 2016–2017. A random sample of 424 patients (209 males, 215 females) DM patients aged 40–79 years were participated in this study. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) were determined. The overall prevalence of the MetS was 67% and 69.3% according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively. The prevalence was higher in females and increased with age. According to NCEP/ATP III criteria and for the overall group, high TG was the most prevalent component of the MetS. However, when an IDF criterion was applied, central obesity was the commonest component in the overall group. According to both diagnostic criteria, hypertension was significantly higher in males while central obesity was dominated in females (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the results revealed high prevalence of the MetS in DM Syrian patients using both diagnostic criteria but slightly higher with IDF criteria. Especial care, health awareness, life style modifications, and proper medications should be directed towards controlling the risk factors components of this syndrome.

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Lipoproteins and other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in a Student Population

Summary

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in many populations, especially in developed countries. The aim of the study was to analyze the lipid status in a student population at increased risk for CVD in comparison with students who are not at increased risk for CVD.

Methods: This study included 238 students from the University of Novi Sad of both sexes (126 men and 112 women), with a mean age of 22.32±1.85 years. According to the body mass index (BMI) lower and higher than 25 kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC) of less and more than 94 cm (80 cm for females) the whole group of 238 students was divided into 2 subgroups: the group at increased risk for CVD (Group 1) and the group at lower risk for CVD (Group 2). Total cholesterol - TCH, triglycerides - TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol - HDL-c, low density lipoprotein cholesterol - LDL-c, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol - VLDL-c concentrations were determined and the index of atherosclerosis (IA), established risk factors RF-TCH/HDL-c ratio and non-HDL-c/HDL-c ratio were mathematically calculated.

Results: The values of TCH, LDL-c, non-HDL-c, VLDL-c and TG were significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (P<0.001). IA, non-HDL-c/HDL-c and RF-TCH/HDL-c ratio were also significantly higher (P<0.001), while HDL-c was significantly lower (p<0.01) in Group 1 compared to controls. These results were not influenced by gender in both groups of subjects.

Conclusions: The data suggest that increased anthropometric parameters are followed by increased lipoprotein status in the group of students at increased risk for CVD and screening of the lipid status is necessary in students, especially in those who are at increased risk for CVD.

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