, See e.g. the painting from 1665 by the Dutch painter Jan Steen, The Feast of Saint Nicholas (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). Sinterklaas has recently turned into an annual slugfest of racial politics. To explain what it is all about, I quote from The Economist of December 6, 2014 :
The problem is the figure of Zwarte Piet , an impish clown with a black face who accompanies the bearded St Nicholas ( Sinterklaas ) on his rounds, distributing presents and biscuits. The character is derived from 17th-century paintings of Moorish slaves, and many Dutch with African
, pp. 50-66.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (2015). Global Agricultural Information Network Reports. <http://gain.fas.usda.gov/RecentGAINPublications>.
Watenpaugh, H.Z., 2004. The Image of an Ottoman City: Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17thCenturies. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
West, P., 2012. From Modern Production to Imagined Primitive: The Social World of Coffee from Papua New Guinea. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wild, A., 2005. Coffee: A Dark
.H. Marshall’s essay on ‘Citizenship and social class’ and published as Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays ( Marshall, 1950 ) In his famous account, Marshall described the evolution of citizenship in terms of three clusters of entitlement. From the 17thcentury, there were various legal rights that came to be more widely shared; habeas corpus was one indication of this development.
In the 19th century, political rights such as the franchise and the secret ballot became more widely recognised, and a variety of political institutions, in particular Parliament, a
followed western models of behavior (this process started even before Peter the Great, in the middle of the 17thcentury). By the beginning of the 19 th century, some representatives of the Russian aristocracy spoke better French than Russian. At the same time during the Napoleonic wars, a deeper understanding of the spirit of freedom inherent in the West brought about some transformation of what used to be a purely outward imitation. Thenceforth, the Russian intelligentsia did not limit itself to blindly imitating external behavior of the western elites – instead, it