Russia and China are the biggest national actors of the world from a territorial and demographical point of view. Together, these two actors control The Eurasian space - China being the most populated country and Russia having the greatest geographical surface. The strategic partnership between these countries pursues objectives in various fields, such as: economy, security, industry, resources and military.
Due to the dynamics of world politics Russia and China were often put in the position to support each other; therefore an official relationship between China and Russia began as early as the 17th century. This relationship affects mostly the Central Asian space, but also powerful global and Asian regional actors.
The theme is decoding the “literary field of the Romanian proto-diplomatic document”, designed to replace the art of diplomacy and cultural regeneration. It is the observation field over the products of literature’s habitat, the “art of the word”. Therefore, to confirm the “Romanian tradition”, we have analysed several of the “literary works” of some Romanian writers from the 19th Century. Under these circumstances, attention is drawn on the role of the document/deed, on its importance in the universe of cultures. Attention is drawn on the occurrence of proto-religious documents and of the proto-diplomatic documents. During the evolution of scripts in the mid 17th Century – presented by Nicolae Iorga as “abandonment of the Franciscan spirit, a change of the entire meaning of the religious literature”, we have included in the study the role of Slavic monks (refugees from Mount Athos on our lands) and their apprenticeship in the atmosphere of “mysticism and culture”, the impact caused by founders of monasteries, turned genuine centres of culture. Within these monastic places, the art of calligraphy and miniature develops, revived under Matei Basarab, Vasile Lupu and especially during the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu.
, See e.g. the painting from 1665 by the Dutch painter Jan Steen, The Feast of Saint Nicholas (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). Sinterklaas has recently turned into an annual slugfest of racial politics. To explain what it is all about, I quote from The Economist of December 6, 2014 :
The problem is the figure of Zwarte Piet , an impish clown with a black face who accompanies the bearded St Nicholas ( Sinterklaas ) on his rounds, distributing presents and biscuits. The character is derived from 17th-century paintings of Moorish slaves, and many Dutch with African
, pp. 50-66.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (2015). Global Agricultural Information Network Reports. <http://gain.fas.usda.gov/RecentGAINPublications>.
Watenpaugh, H.Z., 2004. The Image of an Ottoman City: Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17thCenturies. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
West, P., 2012. From Modern Production to Imagined Primitive: The Social World of Coffee from Papua New Guinea. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wild, A., 2005. Coffee: A Dark
.H. Marshall’s essay on ‘Citizenship and social class’ and published as Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays ( Marshall, 1950 ) In his famous account, Marshall described the evolution of citizenship in terms of three clusters of entitlement. From the 17thcentury, there were various legal rights that came to be more widely shared; habeas corpus was one indication of this development.
In the 19th century, political rights such as the franchise and the secret ballot became more widely recognised, and a variety of political institutions, in particular Parliament, a
16 th century and above all in the 17thcentury, bourgeois office holders were often once again ousted by the nobility, especially in the higher offices of the court. At the same time, offices could now be bought, which undermined both the principle of selecting the best and clientelism, without completely overriding either. On the urban situation see: Francisco Tomás y Valiente: »La venta de oficios de regidores y la formación de oligarquías urbanas en Castilla (siglos XVII–XVIII)«, in: Historia. Instituciones. Documentos 2 (1975), pp. 525–547. In all, the
followed western models of behavior (this process started even before Peter the Great, in the middle of the 17thcentury). By the beginning of the 19 th century, some representatives of the Russian aristocracy spoke better French than Russian. At the same time during the Napoleonic wars, a deeper understanding of the spirit of freedom inherent in the West brought about some transformation of what used to be a purely outward imitation. Thenceforth, the Russian intelligentsia did not limit itself to blindly imitating external behavior of the western elites – instead, it