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Muzyczne konta kry między Spiszem a Śląskiem w XVI i XVII wieku / Music contacts between Spiš and Silesia in the 16th and 17th centuries


Many years of research on the musical past of 16th- and 17th-century Slovakia recently uncovered new facts that demonstrate that there were intense contacts between Spiš and Silesia. These relationships pertain first of all to religious music played in Evangelical churches.

The evidence of musical contacts between Spiš and Silesia in the 16th century is the choirbook (with only the tenor voice extant) from the high school library in Kežmarok (Hungarian Késmárk, German Käsmark, Kesmark). This relic contains many similarities with the content of music manuscripts from Wrocław (inter alia the works of composers Jacobus Gallus [Handl], Jacobus Le Maistre, or Michele Varotto), as well as compositions by the Silesian composer and intellectual, Martin Kinner von Scherffenstein.

Starting from the late 16th and early 17th centuries far more musical pieces were preserved in Spiš. Worth noting among them is the music collection from Levoča (Hungarian Löcse, German Leutschau). This collection comprises both manuscripts (tablatures, choirbooks), and music prints. Silesian traces can be also found here, inter alia in the form of entries by Johann Plotz of Brzeg (Brieg) and many repertoire similarities with the then contemporary manuscripts and music prints from Wrocław.

In the 17th century Spiš and Silesia were also connected by direct personal contacts of musicians, other artists, and intellectuals. For example, the Silesian musician Daniel Speer, and the pastor Lucas Wencelius of Bielsko (Bielitz), Cieszyn Silesia, stayed in Spiš for some time.

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The Music Repertoire of the Society of Jesus in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1565–1773)

in the 1st Half of the 18 th Century; II. Inventories of Instruments and Music Sources in the 17 th and 18 th Centuries], Kwartalnik muzyczny . Vol. 2, pp. 26–32. Cieślak, S. (2000). Harfa duchowna – modlitewnikowy bestseller jezuity Marcina Laterny (1552–1598) [ The Spiritual Harp – A Bestselling Prayer Book by Marcin Laterna, SJ (1552–1598)], Nasza Przeszłość . Vol. 93, pp. 23–48. Culley, T.D. (1970). Jesuits and Music: I. A Study of the Musicians connected with the German College in Rome during the 17 th Century and their Activities in

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National Dances in the Canon of Polish Culture

). Kraków: Universitäts-Buchdruckerei. Burhardt, S. (1976). Polonez: katalog tematyczny II. 1792–1830 [ The Polonaise. A Thematic Catalogue Part II. 1792–1830 ]. Warsaw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne. Bystroń, J.S. (1933). Dzieje obyczajów w dawnej Polsce: wiek XVI–XVIII [ History of Customs in Old Poland: the 16 th –18 th Centuries ], Vol. 2. Kraków: Trzaska, Ewert i Michalski. Chybiński, A. (1928). Lutnia, lutniści i tańce w poezji polskiej XVII w. [The Lute, Lutenists and Dances in Polish Poetry in the 17 th Century], Śpiewak . No. 1, pp. 3

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Bartłomiej Pękiel's Style of polyphony a cappella

Styl polifonii a cappella Bartłomieja Pękiela

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Cudowna Maszyna Optyczna Zograscope / The Wonderful Optical Machine Zograscope


Zograscope is an optical device made to generate the illusion of immaterial space and its projection from a flat picture. Zograscopes appeared in the 1740s and were used until the late 1830s. They are a type of devices called “optical diagonal machines”, classified today as “the early visual media”. The emergence of the zograscope was a turning point in the history of generating and projecting pictures because it opened the chapter of constructing devices to project immaterial 3D pictures. From the historical perspective, zograscopes were something more than a popular parlor entertainment. They embody the Enlightenment drive for seeking knowledge and improvement. The patrons and lovers of science gathered around the optical devices for 3D projection constructed by members of scientific societies supported by aristocratic patrons of art and science, who were collectors at the same time, which may have happened already in the second half of the 17th century. However, those devices were not in general use at that time. The situation changes in the 1740s when zograscopes became desired consumer goods of the English elites and the subject of industrial interest.

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Early Music Collections in St. Nicolas Church in Bielsko-Biała

Dawne muzykalia kościoła św. Mikołaja w Bielsku-Białej

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Silhouette - the 18th-Century Silhouette Portrait and Its Origins

Silhouette - XVIII-wieczny portret sylwetowy i źródła jego powstania

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Sketches on the Origin of Multimedia and Computer Animation

Szkice do genezy multimediów i animacji komputerowej

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Yellow Bird klepak and Polish Traces of Mechanical Life

Żółty ptak klepak i polskie ślady mechanicznego życia

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