location of their hunting grounds ( Rudmose Brown 1920 ). Moreover, they were interested mainly in the coasts and fisheries close to them, omitting, as a rule, inland areas. Besides, Russian documents on the Pomor industry were destroyed because of changing the famous Solovietskiy Monastery, which organized the industry, into an extermination camp in the 1920s.
Whale bones from the 17thcentury on the Gåshamna bay, Sør-Spitsbergen National Park (Photo: J.Niedźwiecki 2008).
Norwegian trapper station from the 20 th century near Palffyodden
Bhaskaracharya spanning the 5 th to the 12 th century ( Amma 1979 ; Waerden 1983). However, this glorious tradition seemed to be paused due to political and economic instability in Indian subcontinent. During 16 th and 17thcenturies, maps were prepared and used by the Mughal rulers to run smooth administration and establish a generalized revenue collection ( Habib 1974 ; Gole 1988 ). Since the 17thcentury Europeans had also widely identified Indian Territory through maps for the expansion of trade and commerce ( Gole 1976 ). Another significant native tradition of
refers to the creation of a state under the Westphalian order with a clearly defined space, authority and territorially circumscribed population. The process, initiated in Europe in the 17thcentury, became particularly evident during the nation-state building processes. Boundarization has been reflected on the maps by means of drawing borders as dividing lines.
Frontier is a broader term. It applies to social, economic and political elements referring chiefly to borderland communities (O’Dowd & Wilson 2002). As a result, frontiers are “zones of varying width, either
populated places, rivers, river rapids, river fords, islands, forests, mountains, and valleys shown on Beauplan maps. These databases comprise the primary output of the BU project. The contents and structure of these GBU databases will be described in detail in a following section.
- 17thCentury Szlak Paths (BSZLAK) – traces the Czarny, Kuczmanski, and Moraski travel paths as shown on Beauplan’s maps. BSZLAK paths are provided as “.shp” line format files.
- Sawrań/Kodyma Border Dispute (SKBD) – provides insights into the 1542 border dispute between Poland
their jurisdiction ( Del Valle 2003 ). In the Modern Era (especially in the 16 th and 17thcenturies), the battle of interests between small farmers and members of the local aristocracy determined the rate of propagation of the cultivation, being especially outstanding in municipalities such as Manzanares and Valdepeñas, located on the Camino Real, which linked the south with the centre of Spain (from Andalusia to Madrid). Despite its relative importance, the general agrarian structure was dominated by stockbreeding and cereals, while vineyards were located on
-purpose pill), Manbyou Kannou-gan (general-purpose pill), Furidashi Goshaku-san (general-purpose powder), Yu-tan Enreishi (Nourishing tonic made of bear’s gall), and Semennennsan (Santonin powder).
Among these nine patent medicines is Manbyou Kannou-gan, which was a famous patent created by Genzo Shono, who was a patent medicine producer in Oumi Hino district, Shiga Prefecture, during the late 17thcentury. He was the first chairperson of the association of Shiga prefectural patent medicine pharmacies ( Motomura 2008 ). Both Fujioka and Shono sold patent medicines under
new ones) ceased to be profitable ( Jones 2007 ); and while the shortfall in domestic wine in Poland could be (and was) supplemented by imports, the disappearance of vineyards was an irrevocable loss. The diversity of the cultural landscape declined.
As if severe winters and cool, rainy summers were not enough, the 17thcentury brought devastating wars that impoverished the cities that had comprised the major wine consumption markets. Only a handful of Polish vineyards survived the 18th century, and many of those that remained fell victim to phylloxera (Bosak, n
available to the locals have been limited to some extent by the restrictions imposed upon them by various governmental authorities, the villagers of the peninsula have also had considerable leeway to take advantage of new opportunities as they have arisen.
No governmental intervention is more drastic than that which comes with warfare and the forced relocation of populations. As discussed at the beginning of this paper, in the 17thcentury the inhabitants of Sai Kung were forcefully relocated from the peninsula. It is likely that few of those who resettled the area
attributed to Lassels (1670) , who writes: “Travelling brings a man a world of particular profits [ … ] and no man understands Livy and Caesar, Guicciardini and Monluc, like him, who hath made exactly the Grand Tour of France, and the Route of Italy” (pp. 25–26). although giving importance to an experience reserved for the sons of aristocratic families (followed by bourgeois, writers and artists), The British already adopted this custom during the 17thcentury, followed by the French and Germans: Italy was the preferred destination for these trips, with its art cities