The author discusses a phenomenon of putting the works of military cartography on medals cast in the 17th century. The analysis focused on a medal presented to Krzysztof Arciszewski (1592-1656) by the Dutch West India Company in 1637. The obverse of this medal features two cartographic images depicting the siege of the Arraial Velho do Bom Jesus fortress (1635) and the battle between Camarigibi and Porto Calvo (1636). They were patterned after two manuscript maps. The maps were made by Arciszewski and attached to a memorandum written and sent to the management of the West India Company on 13 June 1633. They were engraved and published in print only around 1644. The plan of the battle that took place on 18 January 1636 indicates that the engraver (author unknown) used not only the manuscript version but also the medal. The example of the medal minted in 1637 confirms the credibility of cartographic representations featured on numismatic items. It should, naturally, be borne in mind that such representations must have been simplified due to the very nature of the means. Nevertheless, should there be no proper manuscript pattern, such objects may be used successfully as valuable cartographic sources.
Giuseppe Stella, Luis Almeida, Lilia Basílio, Stefania Pasquale, Jorge Dinis, Miguel Almeida and Anna M. Gueli
Coimbra (Portugal), on the left bank of the Mondego River, the Convento de S . Francisco corresponds to a large compound of different built bodies, with two to three floors each, organized around a cloister. Built in the 17thcentury, the structure was occupied by the Franciscans until 1843, after which, and until mid-20 th century, several factories were installed, with considerable impact on the main structure.
During the building rehabilitation project, a large scale Archaeology operation was implemented. Since all the building’s plasters had previously been
According to historical sources in the basin of Mała Panew River there were at least 56 water-powered iron smelters from 14th-19th century. Now only two metallurgy plants work in the area. Many of the former smelting settlements ceased to exist. Historical data on the smelting industry in the area are often scarce. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the history of ferrous metallurgy from (1) the remains of wooden historical buildings, (2) remains of charcoal kilns and (3) deposits from former smelter pond. Results show that Regolowiec smelting settlement existed already in the 17th century (at least several decades earlier than historical written sources suggest) and was later re-paired after destruction caused probably by floods. Charcoal used for iron smelting in the ironworks in Brusiek on the Mała Panew River was burnt at the turn of the 18th century. This is in accordance with historical sources indicating particular prosperity of the metallurgy in that period. Upstream of the ironworks in Brusiek in the first half of the 17th century a large pond existed flooding the floor of the Mała Panew valley. Study has shown that the pond was at least 100 years older than historical sources have indicated.
Anna Bucała, Włodzimierz Margielewski, Leszek Starkel, Krzysztof Buczek and Valentina Zernitskaya
The paper presents the analysis of organic and mineral sediments filling the depression, which developed over the landslide located at the slope (767–773 m a.s.l.) of Lubań ridge decscending to the Ochotnica river valley in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. The landslide formed in an early stage of the Subatlantic Phase (2490 ± 35 BP). The top of peat is dated at 1360 ± 50 years BP and is covered by 72 cm of clayey silts with some sandy intercalations, which indicate slopewash after deforestation. The pollen of ruderal plants and Cerealia (undiff.) reflect agricultural activity in the surroundings. The fragments of charcoal indicate the age of the forest clearance to the first half of the 17th century. The late forest clearance at the elevated north exposed slopes followed 200–300 years later in relation to the foundation of the village at the valley floor.
Jan Esper, Oliver Konter, Paul J. Krusic, Matthias Saurer, Steffen Holzkämper and Ulf Büntgen
Substantial effort has recently been put into the development of climate reconstructions from tree-ring stable carbon isotopes, though the interpretation of long-term trends retained in such timeseries remains challenging. Here we use detrended δ13C measurements in Pinus uncinata tree-rings, from the Spanish Pyrenees, to reconstruct decadal variations in summer temperature back to the 13th century. The June-August temperature signal of this reconstruction is attributed using decadally as well as annually resolved, 20th century δ13C data. Results indicate that late 20th century warming has not been unique within the context of the past 750 years. Our reconstruction contains greater am-plitude than previous reconstructions derived from traditional tree-ring density data, and describes particularly cool conditions during the late 19th century. Some of these differences, including early warm periods in the 14th and 17th centuries, have been retained via δ13C timeseries detrending - a novel approach in tree-ring stable isotope chronology development. The overall reduced variance in earlier studies points to an underestimation of pre-instrumental summer temperature variability de-rived from traditional tree-ring parameters.
Andrey Panin, Grzegorz Adamiec, Khikmatulla Arslanov, Maria Bronnikova, Vladimir Filippov, Elena Sheremetskaya, Natalya Zaretskaya and Elya Zazovskaya
A set of 121 radiocarbon and OSL dates has been compiled from the Upper Dnieper River and tributary valleys, Western European Russia. Each date was attributed according to geomorphic/sedimentological events and classes of fluvial activity. Summed probability density functions for each class were used to establish phases of increasing and reducing fluvial activity. The oldest detected reduction of fluvial activity was probably due to glacial damming at LGM. Within the Holocene three palaeohydrological epochs of millennial-scale were found: (1) high activity at 12,000–8,000 cal BP marked by large river palaeochannels; (2) low activity at 8,000–3,000 cal BP marked by formation of zonal-type soils on -floodplains; short episodes of high floods occurred between 6,500—4,400 cal BP; (3) contrasting hydrological oscillations since 3,000 cal BP with periods of high floods between 3,000–2,300 (2,000) and 900–100 cal BP separated by long interval of low floods 2,300 (2,000)-900 cal BP when floodplains were not inundated — zonal-type soils were developing and permanent settlements existed on floodplains. In the last millennium, four centennial-scale intervals were found: high flooding intervals are mid-11–mid-15th century and mid-17–mid-20th century. Intervals of flood activity similar to the present-day were: mid-15–mid-17th century and since mid-19th century till present. In the context of palaeohydrological changes, discussed are selected palaeogeographic issues such as: position of the glacial boundary at LGM, role of changing amounts of river runoff in the Black Sea level changes, floodplain occupation by Early Medieval population.
location of their hunting grounds ( Rudmose Brown 1920 ). Moreover, they were interested mainly in the coasts and fisheries close to them, omitting, as a rule, inland areas. Besides, Russian documents on the Pomor industry were destroyed because of changing the famous Solovietskiy Monastery, which organized the industry, into an extermination camp in the 1920s.
Whale bones from the 17thcentury on the Gåshamna bay, Sør-Spitsbergen National Park (Photo: J.Niedźwiecki 2008).
Norwegian trapper station from the 20 th century near Palffyodden
Bhaskaracharya spanning the 5 th to the 12 th century ( Amma 1979 ; Waerden 1983). However, this glorious tradition seemed to be paused due to political and economic instability in Indian subcontinent. During 16 th and 17thcenturies, maps were prepared and used by the Mughal rulers to run smooth administration and establish a generalized revenue collection ( Habib 1974 ; Gole 1988 ). Since the 17thcentury Europeans had also widely identified Indian Territory through maps for the expansion of trade and commerce ( Gole 1976 ). Another significant native tradition of
Cieszyn limestones, marly schist
from the 17thcentury to the second half of the 20 th century; in 1942–1945 the area of the quarry was the workplace of the prisoners of the Auschwitz sub-camp in Goleszów
outcrop of Carpathian flysch with rich paleontological material; rock shelter, so-called Shelter in Jasieniowa (Ps-01.03); in the area of the quarry there are excavation complexes (one of them serves as a water reservoir Ton ), a karst lake Pod Księżycem with fragments of an old hydrotechnical construction