Guntis Gerhards, Elīna Pētersone-Gordina and Zita Krūmiņa
Derums, V. (1988). Baltijas sencilvçku slimîbas un tautas dziedniecîba [Ancient Baltic inhabitants: diseases and treatment]. Zinâne, Rîga. 233 pp. (in Latvian).
Dunsdorfs, E. (1962). Latvijas vçsture, 1600-1710 [History of Latvia 1600-1700]. Daugava, Stockholm. 588 pp. (in Latvian).
Gerhards, G. (2005). Ventspils 15.-17. gadsimta iedzîvotâju bioarheoloìiskâ izpçte [Bioarchaeological investigation of the 15th-17thcentury population of Ventspils]. Latvijas Vçstures Institûta Þurnâls, 3, 5-29 (in Latvian).
Hackett, C. J
Sex determination is one of the most important and initial steps in human profile identification from archaeological material. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the application of molecular approaches alongside morphological methods for sex determination in archaeological human skeletal remains. Human skeletal remains were excavated from three cemeteries: St Gertrude Old Church, Dom Square and St Peter’s Church, of 15th–17th century burials in Rīga, Latvia. Morphological and molecular genetic methods, including amplification of genes AMELX/Y and SRY were used to analyse seven skeletal remains. The conducted analyses of morphological features identified sex in all seven cases (two females and five males). By molecular analyses of mediaeval DNA it was possible to determine sex in five of seven (71%) samples. In all positive cases full agreement between morphological estimation and molecular genetic methods was observed. To conclude, DNA analysis can be considered for sex identification in cases with no signs of sexual dimorphism (juvenile skeletons) or partially preserved skeletons.
Viesturs Melecis, Māris Kļaviņš, Māris Laiviņš, Solvita Rūsiņa, Gunta Spriņģe, Jānis Vīksne, Zaiga Krišjāne and Solvita Strāķe
Barzdevièa, M. (2013). Engures muiþas teritorija, iedzîvotâji un saimniecîba (17. gs. beigas - 19. gs. sâkums) [Territory, population and economy of Engure estate (end of the 17thcentury - beginning of the 18th century)]. Grâm.: Kïaviòð, M., Melecis, V. (red.). Cilvçks un daba: Engures ekoreìions (362.-375. lpp.). Rîga: LU Akadçmiskais apgâds (in Latvian).
Becker, E., Jahn, T. (2006). Soziale Ökologie: Grundzüge einer Wissenschaft von den gesellschaft - lichen Naturverhältnissen. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag. 521 S