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Abstract

The paper presents results of research concerning operating of five small wastewater treatment plants working in two different technologies: hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plant and constructed wetland. Each object was designed for the treatment of domestic sewage after preliminary mechanical treatment in a septic tank. Hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plants and one of constructed wetland beds were built for treating sewage produced in educational institutions and resort. In the article attention is paid to possibility of exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants for three main indicators of pollution: BOD5, COD, and total suspension. The reduction of these indices is required by the Regulation of the Minister of Environment [14] for wastewater treatment plants with PE < 2000. In addition, the paper presents the effects of wastewater treatment to reduce biogens. The best quality of outflow was reached by outflows from constructed wetland treatment plants. None of the observed objects fulfilled the requirements in terms of allowable concentrations for total suspension. The most effective were objects operating in technology of “constructed wetland”.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the contamination transport condition with sediment in the Widawa River, which inflows to the Odra River below Wrocław city. The transport simulations have been performed by means of HEC-RAS model, which was calibrated. Study and geochemical analyses indicate that pollutions are cumulated mainly in sediment of grain size, less than 0,20 mm. It was stated that the main sources of contaminations occurring in the Widawa River bottoms are: superficial run-off, municipal and industrial wastes. Sediment bed quality from the Widawa River in selected cross-sections has been analyzed. Samples of suspended load were collected and divided into eight fractions, for which the phosphorus concentration P was calculated. Deposit particles less than 0,20 mm contained most phosphorus, i.e. 73% (3,52 ppm), and particles greater than 0,20 mm about 27% (1,30 ppm) for the whole sample volume. Relationship between the phosphorus concentration P and the sediment grain size was determined. Analysis showed that the initiation of contamination-sediment suspension in the Widawa River is well described by Engelund criterion. Simulations of the migration of pollutions together with deposits in the Widawa River showed that during average flow discharge, the transport intensity of pollution was equal 2 mg/s, and sediments 6 kg/s. In the present work the water quality of the Widawa River has been also presented.

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