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enable them to switch to new hosts ( 49 ). These newly created viruses can acquire zoonotic potential, as witnessed by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the epidemic from Southern China in 2003 caused by SARS-CoVs. This disease, termed “atypical pneumonia”, was diagnosed in humans in 29 countries and had a nearly 10% mortality rate. In 2012, there emerged a subsequent disease caused by a novel coronavirus, the so-called Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) with even higher mortality rates. Both SARS- and MERS-CoVs crossed the species barrier from bats to

REFERENCES 1. Alenius, S., Niskanen, R., Junti, N., Larsso, B. (1991). Bovine coronavirus as the causative agent of winter dysentery: serological evidence. Acta Vet Scand. 32, 163-170. PMid:1666489 2. Yang, D., Leibowitz, L. (2015). The structure and functions of coronavirus genomic 3′ and 5′ ends. Virus Res. 206, 120-133. PMid:25736566 PMCid:PMC4476908 3. Hansa, A., Rai, R., Dhama, K., Wani, M. (2012). ELISA screening of faecal samples for bovine coronavirus and virus detection by RT-PCR in Northern India. Asian J

Starting from the December 2019 identification of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), an overwhelming sense of panic has enveloped public discourse. This is likely to be amplified by WHO recently declaring the novel coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. It is the third significant occurrence of a zoonotic coronavirus crossing the species barrier to infect humans, and it likely will not be the last. Hope is not lost; and a measured approach, one that is cognizant of the seriousness of this public health crisis without giving

., Farag N.H., Haddadin A., Al-Sanouri T., Tamin A., Harcourt J.L., Kuhar D.T., Swerdlow D.L., Erdman D.D., Pallansc h M.A., Haynes L.M., Gerber S.I., Jordan MERS-Co V Investigation Team. (2014). Hospitalassociated outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus:aserologic, epidemiologic, and clinical description. Clin. Infect. Dis., 59: 1225-1233. Al-Tawfiq J.A., Memish Z.A. (2014). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures. Infect. Drug. Resist., 7: 281-287. Alexandersen S., Kobinger G.P., Soule G., Wernery U

Diarrhea Virus from a Novel Outbreak in Belgium, January 2015. Genome Announc. 2015, 3:3. 20. Dastjerdi A, Carr J, Ellis RJ, Steinbach F, Williamson S: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2015, 21(12): 2235-2237. 21. Boniotti MB, Papetti A, Lavazza A, Alborali G, Sozzi E, Chiapponi C, Faccini S, Bonilauri P, Cordioli P,Marthaler D: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Discovery of a Recombinant Swine Enteric Coronavirus, Italy. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2016, 22 (1): 83-87. 22. Toplak I, Ipavec M, Kuhar U, Kušar D, Papic B, Koren S

immunodefi ciency virus and feline leukemia virus in urban stray cats in Belgium. Vet Rec 2002, 151:626-629. 23. Knotek Z, Hajkova P, Svoboda M, Toman M, Raska V: Epidemiology of feline leukaemia and feline immunodefi ciency virus infections in the Czech Republic. Zentralbl Veterinärmed B 1999, 46:665-71. 24. Muirden A: Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodefi ciency virus and feline coronavirus in stray cats sent to an RSPCA hospital. Vet Rec 2002, 150:621-625. 25. Kučer N, Madić J, Bedrica L: Prevalence of antibodies to FIV and FeLV in

immunoglobulin concentrations in cats affected by feline infectious peritonitis or exposed to feline coronavirus infection. Vet J 2004, 167:38-44. 16. Tvarijonaviciute A, Tecles F, Caldin M, Tasca S, Cerón JJ. Validation of spectrophotometric assays for serum paraoxonase type-1 measuremnet in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2012, 73:34-40. 17. McClure V, van Schoor M, Thompson PN, Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Goddard A. Evaluation of the use of serum C-reactive protein concentration to predict outcome in puppies infected with canine parvovirus. JAVMA 2013, 243:361-366. 18. Kocaturk M

-B), Picornaviruses (e.g., human rhinovirus), coronaviruses (e.g., human coronavirus), Pneumoviridiae (e.g., human metapneumovirus), and potentially other viruses. Diagnostics of viral infections in hematological patients Laboratory test for viral infections with focus on latent and chronic infections should be performed in many hematological conditions, especially at diagnosis of the disease, and before HCT (both in recipient and donor). Additionally, after HCT monitoring for CMV and EBV, reactivation is mandatory in allo-HCT setting, and for several other viruses


This study investigated for 14 days post-weaning, the influence of dietary supplementation of synbiotics in the form of probiotic cheeses containing cultures of L. plantarum and L. fermentum and crushed flaxseed (source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids — PUFAs and fibre) on 36 commercial piglets originating from an infected herd (Coronavirus and E. coli) during the critical period of weaning. We focused on the health and metabolism of PUFAs in this critical period of a piglet’s life. The dietary supplementation positively affected: the overall health state of weaners, reduced diarrhoea by 29 % by 14 days post-weaning and significantly increased the counts of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and the production of volatile fatty acids. The PUFA concentrations in the m. biceps femoris of the piglets were analysed by gas chromatography. High levels of ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in flaxseed increased significantly the level of ALA, eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenic acid (DHA) in the pig muscles on days 7 and 14 post-weaning. The levels of ω-6 linolenic acid (LA) were less affected by the diet, but were increased on day 14 post-weaning, while the conversion products of LA, and arachidonic acid (AA), were decreased on days 7 and 14. The increased level of dietary ALA favoured the activity of Δ-6-desaturase for the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, at the expense of AA synthesis from LA. The ability of synbiotics to incorporate high levels of DHA in the pig muscles appear prospective for improving the nutritional properties of pork and reducing the occurrence of civilization diseases in consumers of this product of animal origin.

infectious bronchitis virus isolated from domestic chicken flocks and coronaviruses from feral pigeons in Brazil between 2003 and 2009. Avian Dis. , 54, 1191—1196. 12. Ganapathy, K., Wilkins, M., Forrester, A., Lemiere, S., Cserep, T., Mcmullin, P., Jones, R. C., 2012: QX-like infectious bronchitis virus isolated from cases of proventriculitis in commercial broilers in England. Vet Rec. , 171, 597. 13. Guy, J. S., 2000: Turkey coronavirus is more closely related to avian infectious bronchitis virus than to mammalian coronaviruses. Avian Pathol. , 29, 2017—212. 14