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.M., Maniloff, J., Mayo, M.A., McGeoch, D.J., Pringle, C.R., Wickner, R.B. (Eds) - Virus Taxonomy , Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, Academic 339 Press, New York, pp. 835-849. Erles K., C. Toomey, H. Brooks, J. Brownlie, 2003 - Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in 345 dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease. Virology 310, 216-223. Gorbalenya A. E., L. Enjuanes, J. Ziebuhr, E.J. Snijder, 2006 - Nidovirales: evolving the 354 largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res., 117, 17-37. Pedersen Niels C., 2009 - A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus

-MS/MS system for plant metabolomics. Comput Struct Biotechnol J 4: e201301011. Wang C., Horby P.W., Hayden F.G., Gao G.F. (2020): A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet 395: 470–473.

enable them to switch to new hosts ( 49 ). These newly created viruses can acquire zoonotic potential, as witnessed by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the epidemic from Southern China in 2003 caused by SARS-CoVs. This disease, termed “atypical pneumonia”, was diagnosed in humans in 29 countries and had a nearly 10% mortality rate. In 2012, there emerged a subsequent disease caused by a novel coronavirus, the so-called Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) with even higher mortality rates. Both SARS- and MERS-CoVs crossed the species barrier from bats to

REFERENCES 1. Alenius, S., Niskanen, R., Junti, N., Larsso, B. (1991). Bovine coronavirus as the causative agent of winter dysentery: serological evidence. Acta Vet Scand. 32, 163-170. PMid:1666489 2. Yang, D., Leibowitz, L. (2015). The structure and functions of coronavirus genomic 3′ and 5′ ends. Virus Res. 206, 120-133. PMid:25736566 PMCid:PMC4476908 3. Hansa, A., Rai, R., Dhama, K., Wani, M. (2012). ELISA screening of faecal samples for bovine coronavirus and virus detection by RT-PCR in Northern India. Asian J


Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of constant importance as causative microbial agent, maintained by subclinical infections in wild and domestic animals. Currently, for active immunization in dogs is used an inactivated vaccine, produced by specialized companies in different countries. The vast majority are polyvalent vaccines, which include the two leptospire serovars (Leptospira canicola and Leptospira icterohaemorhagiae) and viral antigens for prevention of infectious hepatitis Rubarht, Carré's disease, coronavirus and parainfluence. Specific immunity induced by this inactivated vaccine, is active, individual, installs in 10 to 21 days after administration, lasting a variable time (4-6 months) and never causes a 100% protection. This paper aims to investigate how this immune response in carnivores and its protection.

hepatitis virus (MHV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and other coronaviruses can cause G0/G1- or G2/M-phase arrest ( 3 , 7 , 19 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which epidemic strains of PEDV affect the mammalian cell cycle have not been elucidated. In this study, Vero cells were infected with the epidemic SHpd/2012 PEDV strain to determine the effect on cell cycle progression, to explore the molecular mechanisms producing the effects of PEDV on the cell cycle, and to provide theoretical

parainfluenza virus 3. BMC Vet Res 2012, 28, 37. 34. Timurkan M.O., Alcigir M.E.: Phylogenetic analysis of a partial L1 gene from bovine papillomavirus type 1 isolated from naturally occurring papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2017, 84, 1–6. 35. Timurkan M.O., Aydın H., Belen S.: The detection and molecular characterization of bovine respiratory coronavirus infection by RT-PCR in Erzurum. Atatürk Üniv Vet Bil Derg 2015, 10, 186–192. 36. Valarcher J.F., Schelcher F., Bourhy H.: Evolution of bovine respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol

Introduction Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause a large variety of diseases in humans and animals. In pigs, coronaviruses affect various organs, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. CoVs have one of the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, which in combination with their high genetic diversity causes mutation and recombination, resulting in new virus variants ( 24 ). Besides porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), the porcine coronaviruses comprise transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine

PW, Chien SC, Shyur LF, Yang NS. Specific plant terpenoids and lignoids possess potent antiviral activities against serve acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Med Chem 2007; 50:4087-4095. 42. Cermelli C, Fabio A, Fabio G., Quaglio P. Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses. Curr Microbiol 2008; 56:89-92. 43. De Logu A, Loy G, Pellerano ML, Bonsignore L, Schivo ML. Inactivation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 and prevention of cell-to-cell virus spread by Santolinia insularis essential oil. Antiviral Res 2000; 48:177-185. 44. Carson CF, Ashton