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enable them to switch to new hosts ( 49 ). These newly created viruses can acquire zoonotic potential, as witnessed by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the epidemic from Southern China in 2003 caused by SARS-CoVs. This disease, termed “atypical pneumonia”, was diagnosed in humans in 29 countries and had a nearly 10% mortality rate. In 2012, there emerged a subsequent disease caused by a novel coronavirus, the so-called Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) with even higher mortality rates. Both SARS- and MERS-CoVs crossed the species barrier from bats to


This study investigated for 14 days post-weaning, the influence of dietary supplementation of synbiotics in the form of probiotic cheeses containing cultures of L. plantarum and L. fermentum and crushed flaxseed (source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids — PUFAs and fibre) on 36 commercial piglets originating from an infected herd (Coronavirus and E. coli) during the critical period of weaning. We focused on the health and metabolism of PUFAs in this critical period of a piglet’s life. The dietary supplementation positively affected: the overall health state of weaners, reduced diarrhoea by 29 % by 14 days post-weaning and significantly increased the counts of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and the production of volatile fatty acids. The PUFA concentrations in the m. biceps femoris of the piglets were analysed by gas chromatography. High levels of ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in flaxseed increased significantly the level of ALA, eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenic acid (DHA) in the pig muscles on days 7 and 14 post-weaning. The levels of ω-6 linolenic acid (LA) were less affected by the diet, but were increased on day 14 post-weaning, while the conversion products of LA, and arachidonic acid (AA), were decreased on days 7 and 14. The increased level of dietary ALA favoured the activity of Δ-6-desaturase for the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, at the expense of AA synthesis from LA. The ability of synbiotics to incorporate high levels of DHA in the pig muscles appear prospective for improving the nutritional properties of pork and reducing the occurrence of civilization diseases in consumers of this product of animal origin.

infectious bronchitis virus isolated from domestic chicken flocks and coronaviruses from feral pigeons in Brazil between 2003 and 2009. Avian Dis. , 54, 1191—1196. 12. Ganapathy, K., Wilkins, M., Forrester, A., Lemiere, S., Cserep, T., Mcmullin, P., Jones, R. C., 2012: QX-like infectious bronchitis virus isolated from cases of proventriculitis in commercial broilers in England. Vet Rec. , 171, 597. 13. Guy, J. S., 2000: Turkey coronavirus is more closely related to avian infectious bronchitis virus than to mammalian coronaviruses. Avian Pathol. , 29, 2017—212. 14

hepatitis virus (MHV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and other coronaviruses can cause G0/G1- or G2/M-phase arrest ( 3 , 7 , 19 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which epidemic strains of PEDV affect the mammalian cell cycle have not been elucidated. In this study, Vero cells were infected with the epidemic SHpd/2012 PEDV strain to determine the effect on cell cycle progression, to explore the molecular mechanisms producing the effects of PEDV on the cell cycle, and to provide theoretical

parainfluenza virus 3. BMC Vet Res 2012, 28, 37. 34. Timurkan M.O., Alcigir M.E.: Phylogenetic analysis of a partial L1 gene from bovine papillomavirus type 1 isolated from naturally occurring papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2017, 84, 1–6. 35. Timurkan M.O., Aydın H., Belen S.: The detection and molecular characterization of bovine respiratory coronavirus infection by RT-PCR in Erzurum. Atatürk Üniv Vet Bil Derg 2015, 10, 186–192. 36. Valarcher J.F., Schelcher F., Bourhy H.: Evolution of bovine respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol

Introduction Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause a large variety of diseases in humans and animals. In pigs, coronaviruses affect various organs, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. CoVs have one of the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, which in combination with their high genetic diversity causes mutation and recombination, resulting in new virus variants ( 24 ). Besides porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), the porcine coronaviruses comprise transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine