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S.J. Sheen and B.I. Townes

Abstract

Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis revealed at least 13 anodic protein bands in leaf extracts of seven tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) strains representing Burley, Turkish, flue- and fire-cured types. Four major bands B, E, G, and J were common in all strains. Weak bands varied slightly in mobility and in number among tobacco types. Studies of cell fractions of Burley 21 leaves yielded information that bands A, C, D, G, and J are present in the cytoplasm, whereas all but bands B, E, L, and M appeared to be identical in the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear extracts. The resemblance in protein banding pattern among the organelles indicates similarity in their membrane proteins. Bands B, E, L, and M are associated with plasma membrane or cell wall. During simulated air-curing, a majority of bands diminished by the tenth day, whereas bands B, E, and G remained highly intense and the concentration of band C was reduced in cured leaves. Bands B, E, and G reacted positively with the periodic-acid Schiff's reagent (PAS) but negatively with the colloidal ion staining. Trypsin digestion abolished protein bands stained with amido black or the PAS reagent. Results suggest that bands B, E, and G are neutral or weakly acidic glycoproteins

Open access

Mirosław Mularczyk

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present social and occupational changes in small towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship in regard to their accessibility to communication with larger towns in the examined area. Because of the availability of statistic data for the analysis, the time period from 1995 to 2004 was selected.

Answers to the following question were looked for in the paper:

– is there an interdependence between the directions of the occurring social and occupational changes (a change in the number of inhabitants, changes in internal migrations, changes in the employment structure) in small towns of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship and their accessibility to communication with larger towns (exceeding five thousand inhabitants) in the examined area.

A network of towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, in the form in which it functions since 1999 is examined.

Open access

Paweł Żwirek and Jakub Fiszer

Abstract

The paper presents selected issues in the revitalization of the façades of buildings located in the historic ‘Old Town’ part of the city of Kraków. The subjects of the revitalization were the façades of an office building and a multi-level garage, both built in the 1970s in the administrative district of the ‘Old Town’ in Krakow. The criteria that guided the project heads in the choice of technology and technical solutions used in the revitalization project are also presented. The paper discusses the problems associated with the implementation of a new aluminium façade on the exterior walls, which were characterized by very large inaccuracies, significantly exceeding tolerance values.

Open access

Carmen Zaharia and Iuliana Radu

Abstract

The study presents some authors’ experimental results for determination of some quality indicators (few general, specific and toxic physical-chemical indicators) analyzed at the beginning of summer season (June, 2013), in three control sections of Siret River in Pascani town area (i.e. Lunca-Pascani entrance, 1 km-upstream, and 1 km-downstream of Pascani bridge, respectively). The real pollution status of Siret River in Pascani town area is also estimated by the global pollution index (I* GP), and corresponds to values between 3.215-3.891 indicating ‘an aquatic environment modified by domestic and economic activities alongside the river with generation of stress effect against life forms’.

Open access

Aurelia Warcholińska and Sylwia Suwara-Szmigielska

The Vascular Flora of the Railway Grounds of the Pabianice Town

In the paper a list and general characterization of vascular plants recorded on railway grounds of the town of Pabianice is presented. The great diversity of habitats within the railway grounds as well as their inclination to be colonized by numerous introduced species resulted in high variety of vascular plants there. This flora consists of 382 taxa.

Open access

Iwona Kantor-Pietraga

Abstract

The article addresses the problem of depopulating towns in the postwar period (1946–1990) in Poland. The essence of this study is to highlight the problem rather neglected in scientific research on two levels – empirical and explanatory. In the article, a full inventory of towns, which recorded a decrease in population, in the period, was made on the basis of available statistical sources and relating studies on the issues of population. Due to short-term population swings, only the facts related to depopulation that took place in perspective of the designated research sub-periods were taken into consideration: 1946–1950, 1950–1960, 1960–1970, 1970–1980 and 1980–1990. The analysis was made on the basis of the contemporary administrative division of the country into provinces. The primary purpose of the article was an attempt to answer the question regarding the role of depopulation in the socialist period and the possible connotations of this fact, in relation to population loss reported presently in Polish towns. The starting point was, however, a detailed discussion of conditions of urban depopulation in the socialist period. It was recognized that the understanding of this genetically multifaceted problem should form the basis of interpretation to any generalizations made in relation to the past, present and future demographic changes in Poland and other countries. It was also found that understanding the facts connected with demographic development should be a canon of research conducted with reference to the analysed problems. The raised issue of demographic decrease in Polish towns during the socialist period, falls within such an explanatory model.

Open access

Marcin Budzyński, Dawid Ryś and Wojciech Kustra

Abstract

Port towns are strategic places from the point of view of transport systems. They form integration junctions for various transport branches , apart from the traditional - road and railway ones , also for water( sea) transport which is active there. Moreover, air transport comes also into consideration , whose efficient functioning must be connected with good accessibility, that concerns sea transport as well. Efficient and safe servicing the ports is crucial for their functioning. Problems associated with the overloading of lorries, which leads to degradation of road surface structure , observed in Gdynia, are discussed as an example in this paper. Problems of road traffic safety (RTS) are presented in this paper on the example of Gdańsk. The two issues: the road traffic safety and road surface degradation constitute only some transport problems of port towns , but they are very important, from the point of view of their specificity, for integration junctions of all the transport branches for people and goods. However, in discussing selected aspects of transport in port towns it is necessary to refer to the managing of integrated transport system with taking into account its traffic safety aspects.

Open access

T. Sofilić and J. Jendričko

Abstract

In order to calculate the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes located in the town of Sisak, Croatia, this research has built on experiences from developed countries, where the emission factor values from individual metallurgical processes have been taken from the reference data and used for the estimate of the emission of these pollutions in the European countries. The calculation of the emission polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes located in the town of Sisak took into account annual outputs of sinter, pig iron, steel blooms and steel billets, as well as steel casts.

The metallurgical processes installed in the town of Sisak between 1950 and 2010 emitted from Q1-TEQ =17 mg a-1 PCDDs/Fs in 2001 to Q1-TEQ =5823 mg a-1 in 1989, depending on the activity of these processes. Within the observed period, the largest source of PCDDs/Fs emission was the iron ore sintering plant. Within the observed timeframe, the town of Sisak did not experience any excessive air, soil or water pollution by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the local metallurgical processes.

Open access

Andrzej Raszkowski

Abstract

Dzierżoniów’s residents definitely represent one of its most valuable resources. Its development and improvement of the generally approached life quality depends on their involvement in solving social and economic problems, their entrepreneurship and creativity. It should also be emphasized that the vast majority of surveyed residents are in favour of their city development. This phenomenon is based on the principle of mutual dependencies, i.e. the better the city functioning, the better living the conditions provided for its residents. On the other hand, the more active and involved the residents are the more effective is their support for the city development (e.g. by their involvement in NGOs’ activities). The presented article was prepared based on the survey studies ordered by Dzierżoniów’s Town Office and conducted in the period July–August 2013 which covered, among others, the city residents (422 respondents). The research was carried out within the framework of one of the stages in developing Dzierżoniów’s Local Sustainable Development Strategy for the period 2014-2020. The purpose of the study is to discuss and assess the selected functional areas of Dzierżoniów Town (geographic environment, economy, technical infrastructure, social infrastructure, city management) based on its residents’ opinions.

Open access

Anthony Egbu and Decklan Okoroigwe

Abstract

Management of urban solid waste implies the collection, transfer, treatment recycle, reuse and disposal of such waste. Collection of urban household solid waste traditionally rests with government agencies designated with such responsibility. Solid waste collection begins from storage at the household level to the final treatment or disposal point and represents the most important aspect of urban solid waste management. Little has however been written on urban household solid waste collection in Nigeria. Using empirical data from three urban areas of Anambra State, Nigeria, the paper examines the place of informal private solid waste collectors in household solid waste collection. The ANOVA technique is used to test the null hypothesis that the sample means of the distance to designated community/street solid waste collection containers in the residential neighbourhoods of the three towns are equal. We conclude on household patronage of informal private solid waste collectors as against government provided community/street collection containers in the areas studied.