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Florin Dumiter, Petre Brezeanu, Claudia Radu and Florin Turcas

Abstract

Central bank independence represents the core element of assessing the complex relationship between government and central bank, having at background the fundamental issue of a free monetary policy decision-making process from the hands of the political circle. However, central bank independence is a multilevel concept within some social, economic and behavioral implications both for the central banks and for the society at whole. Central bank independence is needed in order to establish an autonomous central bank with a high degree of freedom in choosing its’ instruments, objectives, techniques and tactics. Moreover, a high degree of transparency for the public disclosure and monitoring of central bank operation and transaction is needed for the social barometer of the central bank. Consequently the central bank must have a high degree of accountability and responsibility vis - á - vis of the most democratic institution, i.e. Parliament. In this article it is presented a comprehensive study regarding the complex relationship between central bank independence and inflation by modeling these two monetary policy panacea, in order to make a fine tuning regarding the causal relationship established in a heterodox manner.

Open access

Philippe Bou Nader

Abstract

This article addresses a key legal debate that the Baltic NATO members ought to engage in: what constitutes an “armed attack” and what interpretation should be made of this concept in order to deter recent Russian hybrid warfare strategies. These questions are considered in connection with a more general issue regarding the law of self-defence: the question of what constitutes an armed attack in international law. This article will try to present a broad definition and context of Russian hybrid warfare and how it is challenging traditional jus ad bellum paradigms. Too few policy-makers have paid detailed attention to the new Russian “lawfare” in Ukraine, using specific military and non-military tactics in order to blur the lines between “armed attack” and mere political intervention. Meanwhile, legal scholars detach their analysis from actual policy-serving considerations and tend to acquiesce to some very restrictive theories of the use force in self-defence. For some countries, like the Baltic ones, facing strategic exposure – because of both threatening neighbours and low military capacities – the jus ad bellum paradigm should not be construed as another layer of obstacle.

Open access

Doru Șupeală

Abstract

In the context of a highly dynamic labour market, with the entry of the Y and Z generations in the active workforce and the shift of power balance from employers to employees, the corporate employer brand becomes a strategic element and part of the non-material capital that each company can use to attract and retain top talents and, consequently, to get business performance. This paper proposes a modern vision of leadership and talent management, in which collaboration, empathy, democratization of decisions, development of emotional connections and increasing the level of freedom for employees contribute to building an effective, attractive and sustainable Employer Value Proposition. By integrating Human Resources and Marketing management principles, objectives, activities and tactics, companies should focus on authenticity in their communications, in order to win employees’ minds and hearts in the contemporary very intense competition for talents. We suggest updating the traditional Marketing Mix to 15 elements, in order to support Employer Branding Strategies and to reach the Employer of Choice status. The essential objective is the development of a deep relationship between employees and companies, in the form of a transaction with dual value, financial and emotional at the same time. Loyalty is seen as superior and consecutive to solidly applied retention, adding emotional value to the material benefits offered by the companies to their employees.

Open access

Jevgeņijs Stepanovs, Agnese Ozoliņa, Vita Rovīte, Biruta Mamaja and Indulis Vanags

Abstract

Microvascular free flap surgery, has become an important part of reconstructive surgery during the last decades, as it allows closure of various tissue defects and recovery of organs function. Despite surgical progress resulting in high rates of transferred tissue survival, the risk of pedicle vessels thrombosis still remains a significant problem. A total of 108 articles from Pubmed and Science Direct databases published in 2005–2015 were analysed. This review of the literature assessed the influence of patient-dependent risk factors and different perioperative management strategies on development of microvascular free flap thrombosis. Sufficient evidence for risk associated with hypercoagulation, advanced age and certain comorbidities was identified. Presently, rotational thromboelastometry allows early hypercoagulability detection, significantly changing further patient management. Identification of flap thrombosis promoting surgery-related aspects is also essential in preoperative settings. Choice of anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia, administration of different types and amounts of fluids, blood products and vasoactive agents, temperature control are no less important in perioperative anaesthesiological management. More attention should be focused on timely preoperative evaluation of patient-dependent risk factors, which can influence anaesthesiological and surgical tactics during and after microvascular free flap surgery. Perioperative anaesthesiological management strategy continues to be controversial and therefore it should be performed based on thrombotic risk assessment and patient individual needs, thus improving flap survival rates and surgical outcome.

Open access

Miruna Florina Lungu

Abstract

As we are part of a dynamic world oriented towards change and flexibility, the society becomes more eager to be connected and updated to the latest news. Within this context, the purpose of the current paper is to focus on the tactics the companies use in order to achieve strategic agility in the telecom industry. The study aims to seek and analyzes which are the reasons which support the telecom industry to remain innovative and competitive on the market Therefore in order to align to the exponential trend of the market for innovation, we should have an overview picture of internal capabilities of the organization like human resource, technological advances or innovation. Further on, the literature review strengthens the significance companies place on decisions which keep alive their sustainability. Many studies claim that in order to deliver top results, an organization must be aware and fully exploit its major drivers of success. The paper will bridge the literature review with a realcase analysis. We will use a survey based on a sample of companies operating with the telecom market which will be shared at different levels of the business from stakeholders to top management. The results are meant to lead to a set of findings which influence the companies in being agile on the market. The outcome might serve as a reference point for the ones interested to set up a company within this industry or who are conducting research on this subject.

Open access

Lucy Simko, Luke Zettlemoyer and Tadayoshi Kohno

Abstract

Source code attribution classifiers have recently become powerful. We consider the possibility that an adversary could craft code with the intention of causing a misclassification, i.e., creating a forgery of another author’s programming style in order to hide the forger’s own identity or blame the other author. We find that it is possible for a non-expert adversary to defeat such a system. In order to inform the design of adversarially resistant source code attribution classifiers, we conduct two studies with C/C++ programmers to explore the potential tactics and capabilities both of such adversaries and, conversely, of human analysts doing source code authorship attribution. Through the quantitative and qualitative analysis of these studies, we (1) evaluate a state-of-the-art machine classifier against forgeries, (2) evaluate programmers as human analysts/forgery detectors, and (3) compile a set of modifications made to create forgeries. Based on our analyses, we then suggest features that future source code attribution systems might incorporate in order to be adversarially resistant.

Open access

Samuel Keith Duncan

Abstract

No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL) into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.

Open access

Alexandra-Florenţa Costin

Abstract

Accentuated by globalization, the overlapping and the dissemination of values, beliefs and perceptions pertaining to different cultures have reached an unprecedented level, phenomenon which, with the contribution of new technologies and the international media, led to the creation of a new global culture. The constant movement of large masses of people with different personal goals has brought into contact individuals coming from various cultures, who found themselves in the position of trying to understand, filter and harmonize new cultural practices as well as developing skills for coping with them; due to widespread businesses spanning national borders, negotiation practitioners frequently encounter business opponents from unfamiliar cultures and resort to strategies and tactics meant to cross cultural boundaries and the obstacles of the business context. The paper is an overview of concepts and findings regarding the origin of the global culture as cultural co-existence in the international space, with an emphasis on the concepts of cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural competence, cultural variables and their impact on cross-cultural negotiations.

Open access

Liliya Satalkina and Nestor Shpak

Abstract

Background: Nowadays the emphasis on social components in the general mainstream of innovation activity is one of the strongest grounds for the successful functioning and development of enterprises. In several countries, social innovation activity is becoming a product of business in general, with associated expectations regarding profit.

Objectives: The goal of the article is to develop a toolkit for the evaluation of the influence of the macro-environment on the social innovation activity (SIA) of enterprises.

Method: The methodology includes elements of theoretical and empirical research with the implementation of methods such as a literature review, all types of analysis, and methods of aggregation and integration. Questionnaires were used as a means of data collection.

Results: The general methodological framework of diagnostics of the SIA macro-environment is distinguished. Based on a theoretical analysis of the SIA ecosystem and the experience of operating enterprises, the main factors of SIA macro-environment are determined. The general integrated index and its five-level interpretational model are proposed as a measure for the evaluation of the SIA macro-environment.

Conclusion: The results presented provide data necessary for the argumentation of SIA strategy and tactics, as well as investment policy in this sphere.

Open access

Ferenc Mónus and Zoltán Barta

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