In the early 1990s, an employment reduction in the State Forests caused the lowest-income employees to be transferred to external service providers. At the same time, due to the lack of students applying in this field, numerous vocational schools were shut down. At present, professions in the forestry sector are characterized by work under harsh conditions combined with low pay and are thus rarely chosen by young people. As a result, this service sector’s average age is increasing very visibly. The aim of this paper was to gather information about the motivation of the students who did decide to begin training in this field and their professional aspirations. Our work is based on data obtained from forestry schools and a 9-question survey. Questions in the survey concerned the motivation to become an operator of forest machines, family traditions related to this profession, professional interests and plans for the future. The data analysis revealed that forestry education at the level of vocational schools is practically inexistent. For the past six years, the only unit that trained new forestry workers continuously was the Forestry School in Rogoziniec. The school’s graduates primarily pick up the profession of harvester operator and forwarder operator. Even more alarming is the fact that most of this school’s students are aware of the present employment conditions in Poland and are considering going abroad to find jobs. Therefore, in order to retain the newly trained workforce, it is necessary to improve the attractiveness of the forestry professions and to introduce systemic solutions for the development of qualifications and competences, which should be of interest to both forestry entrepreneurs and the State Forests.
Grzegorz Józef Nowicki, Barbara Ślusarska, Ewa Rudnicka-Drożak, Anna Wiśniewska, Bernadeta Jędrzejkiewicz, Kamil Pielaszkiewicz and Aleksandra Sekut
Aim. Determination of health behaviors in the group of people performing medical and non-medical professions.
Material and methods. The research covered 598 individuals divided into two groups: those performing medical professions (group M, n = 305) and non-medical (group P; n = 293). Standardized tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale - version B, General Self-Efficacy Scale on risk factors and prevention of civilization diseases (own authorship). The controls were subjected to measurement of blood pressure as well as their height and body mass tests.
Results. In group M, the level of self-efficacy, the location of health control in terms of the influence of the others and the chance, age, incidence of cardiovascular diseases in the father, smoking and the level of mean systolic blood pressure explain 17.5% of the variability of health behavior. In group P, the level of self-efficacy, location of health control in terms of the influence of the others and the chance, monthly net income per a family member, the occurrence of neoplasms in siblings, smoking, average blood pressure and the level of knowledge about risk factors and prevention of civilization diseases explain 27.9% of the variance of the health behavior variable.
Conclusions. There is a diversification of selected determinants of health behaviors in the group of individuals performing medical and non-medical professions, with their stronger impact on non-medical professionals (17.5% vs. 27.9% of their variability).
Pre-service teacher training offers various opportunities for trainees to become aware of and understand the qualities of good teaching. Towards the end of their training they should be able to identify clearly the criteria for measuring their readiness for teaching profession as well as identify their own strong and weak areas.
The author of this article presents the results of the study where the aim was to focus on the trainees′ perception of themselves as English language teachers based on the criteria of the EPOSTL at the end of their training when trainees receive their diploma for teaching the English language.
The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators’ training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society. The thorough research of the experience in training translators and interpreters in the USA may help to find out new perspective methodological approaches to teaching and learning. This article reviews the variety of translator training programmes in Ukraine and in the USA and presents the analysis of the innovative teaching approaches that are currently popular in the education community. There exist different kinds of translators’ training degree programmes: short and long, full-time and part-time in Ukraine and in the USA. American universities and colleges provide not only academic programmes but also specific certificate programmes in translation and interpretation. The peculiarity of Ukrainian translators’ training programmes is that all these programmes are fully integrated into the university system. The approaches applied in the process of translators’ training in the American system of education are mostly new and oriented on the professional skills building. The following teaching approaches are currently used in the translators’ training process: profession-based, learner-centred, social constructivist and interdisciplinary. A social constructivist approach is more likely to be applied to translators’ training process in Ukraine under the modern conditions.
It has been defined that the problem of labor socialization of young specialists is a problem of great interest and practical importance for modern pedagogical science. Current issues of professional socialization of young people have been considered. Special attention has been paid to orphans - inmates of institutions of social care in China. It has been determined that labor education throughout the history was considered to play the primary role among all kinds of educational work with young people both in classical and modern China. The experience of China as to the problem mentioned has been characterized. Special attention has been paid to the issues which play a practical role both in motivating orphans to professional and labor search (holding “weeks of professions”, participation in daily work as to maintaining the orphanage, caring for youngsters and olds, work in gardens and workshops located on the territory of orphanage etc.) and the society to taking care of orphans (patronage and guarding from factories and plants, granting jobs’ quotas for orphanages’ graduates, making production areas on the territories of the orphanages etc.). It has been found out that adequate labor and professional socialization of orphans in China is considered to be an important part of public campaigns aimed at making staff reserve for different plants and factories (especially with hard or harmful working conditions), law enforcement agencies and agriculture. It has been defined that appropriate level of labor and professional socialization of orphans in China is seen by the State as an essential condition of their full integration into modern Chinese society.
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The paper indentifies and synthesizes the observed changes in the role of the property valuer on the property market. The authors of this paper provide a perspective on the changes in the educational programs for valuers. The main challenge for valuation professionals lies in developing a deeper understanding of market globalization and better analytical skills, with a view to assessing accurate values. The educational system at the university level should encompass programmes which will prepare valuers for providing proper advice affecting important investment decisions of real estate market participants. They stress the role of international and national organizations in re-shaping the profile of the valuer. The current critical attitude towards the valuation profession has forced the European body representing valuers, namely The European Group of Valuers’ Associations (TEGoVA) to speed up the harmonisation of the valuation practice in order to forestall more rigorous control by the EU. In response to this, all the major internationally recognised standard setting bodies, such as the above-mentioned TEGoVA and The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), are considering the need to add “risk analysis” to valuation reports. Such development should significantly affect future valuation educational and training programmes which will need to present a more holistic approach to real estate as an asset class.
The shaping of the Lutheran teaching profession and Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries
The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trenčín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.
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