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Joseph Ching Velasco and Jeremy de Chavez

Abstract

At present, most students in the universities are considered millennials. As explained by Delcampo, Haggerty, Haney, and Knippel (2010), millennials are individuals born from 1981-2000. In general, millennials are perceived to be the “me” generation or “hero” generation. In addition, they are criticized as individuals who are self-centered, unmotivated, disrespectful, and disloyal (Myers & Sadaghiani, 2010). Given the conflicting and, to some extent, uncritical generalizations about the millennial cohort, this paper explores the work ethic profile of Filipino millennial university students. The respondents of this study are 248 university students from a private university in Metro Manila, Philippines. Through the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile - Short Form (MWEP-SF), the seven dimension of work ethic were described. Results reveal that Filipino millennial university students scored high on self-reliance. Likewise, they have high mean scores in the dimensions of centrality of work, wasted time, morality/ethics, delay of gratification, and hard work. The dimension of leisure is ranked the lowest. The findings further reveal that there are significant differences in work ethic between male and female respondents. However, in terms of academic specialization, no significant differences were observed. Considering academic achievement, workload, and study hours, these factors interact with the different facets of work ethic.

Open access

Luljeta Hasani

Abstract

As a result of this political mentality of the Albanian political class in the first decade of the council, unfortunately, and today, this feature of the Albanian political and political class continues to be used by the government as a revolt against the political opponent. This mentality of the political class has undermined the morality of politics, as the level of political reasoning is revenge and hatred for the other who has fallen out of power through the vote, considering the removal of power as an injustice that has been done, this situation has Coupled with the Albanian political class all the time, slowing democratic processes in the country. The functioning of the parliament is a direct expression of the political class level, and it is a guarantee that the political system will function. Through it, society sees how to examine ways of gaining power and its functioning and control, but the political class that has emerged on the political scene following the collapse of the communist system has failed to give this institution a normal function within the standards Of a Western parliament.

Open access

Ana-Karina Schneider

Abstract

In this essay, Kazuo Ishiguro’s “Bewilderment Trilogy” is read as a series of Bildungsromane that test the limits of that genre. In these thematically unrelated novels, characters reach critical points in their lives when they are confronted with the ways in which their respective childhoods have shaped their grownup expectations and professional careers. In each, the protagonist has a successful career, whether as a musician (The Unconsoled), a detective (When We Were Orphans), or a carer (Never Let Me Go), but finds it difficult to overcome childhood trauma. Ishiguro’s treatment of childhood in these novels foregrounds the tension between individual subjectivity and the formal strictures and moral rigors of socialisation. In this respect, he comes close to modernist narratives of becoming, particularly James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Narrative strategies such as epiphanies and the control of distance and tropes such as boarding schools and journeys to foreign lands provide the analytical coordinates of my comparative study. While raising the customary questions of the Bildungsroman concerning socialisation and morality, I argue, Ishiguro manipulates narration very carefully in order to maintain a non-standard yet meaningful gap between his protagonists’ understanding of their lives and the reader’s.

Open access

Vasil Gluchman

Abstract

The author studies the role of Christianity in two forms of 9th century political ethics in the history of Great Moravia, represented by the Great Moravian rulers Rastislav and Svatopluk. Rastislav’s conception predominantly uses the pre-Erasmian model of political ethics based on the pursuit of welfare for the country and its inhabitants by achieving the clerical-political independence of Great Moravia from the Frankish kingdom and, moreover, by utilising Christianity for the advancement of culture, education, literature, law and legality, as well as by spreading Christian ethics and morality in the form of the Christian code of ethics expressed in ethicallegal documents. Svatopluk’s political conception was a prototype of Machiavellian political ethics, according to which one is, in the interest of the country and its power and fame, allowed to be a lion and/or a fox. Svatopluk abused Christianity in the name of achieving his power-oriented goals. Great Moravia outlived Rastislav; it did not, however, outlive Svatopluk, as, shortly after his death, it broke up and ceased to exist. The author came to the conclusion that Rastislav’s conception was more viable, as its cultural heritage lives on in the form of works by Constantine and Methodius.

Open access

Vincenzo Alfano

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to investigate about the differences and, if any, the similarities among the modern State and the mafia criminal organizations. In particular, starting from their definitions, I will try to find the differences between State and mafia, to then focus on the operational aspects of the functioning of these two organizations, with specific reference to the effect/impact that both these human constructs have on citizens’ existences, and especially on citizen’s economic lives. All this in order to understand whether it is possible to identify an objective difference – beside morals – between taxation by the modern State and extortion by criminal organizations. With this of course I do not want to argue that the mafia is in any way justifiable or absolvable, nor that it is better than the State. However, I want to investigate whether there is a real, logical reason why the State should be considered by the citizens more desirable than the criminal organizations oppressing Southern Italy, from a strictly logical point of view and not from the point of view of ethics and morality.

Open access

Geoffrey S. Holtzman

genetical evolution of social behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7(1): 17–52. Huemer, Michael. 2008. Revisionary intuitionism. Social Philosophy and Policy 25(1): 368–92. Joyce, Richard. 2001. The Myth of Morality . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kahane, Guy. 2011. Evolutionary debunking arguments. Noûs 45(1): 103–25. Kamm, Frances. 2009. Neuroscience and moral reasoning: a note on recent research. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37(4): 330–45. Kurzban, Robert; DeScioli, P.; and Fein, D. 2012. Hamilton vs. Kant: pitting

Open access

Lev Kreft

Hook to the Chin

Within historical avant-garde movements from the beginning of the 20th century, a curious taste and fascination for boxing burst out, and developed later into the claim that art must become more similar to boxing, or to sport in general. This fascination with pugilism in the early stage of its popularity on the continent included such charismatic figures of the Parisian avant-garde as Arthur Cravan, who was Oscar Wilde's nephew, a pretty good boxer and an unpredictable organizer of proto-dada outrages and scandals.

After WWI, the zenith of artists' and intellectuals' love for boxing was reached in Weimar Germany. One of the well known examples connecting boxing with art was Bertolt Brecht with his statement that we need more good sport in theatre. His and other German avant-garde artists' admiration for boxing included the German boxing star May Schmeling, who was, at least until he lost his defending championship match against Joe Louis, an icon of the Nazis as well. Quite contrary to some later approaches in philosophy of sport, which compared sport with an elite art institution, Brecht's fascination with boxing took its anti-elitist and anti-institutional capacities as an example for art's renewal.

To examine why and how Brecht included boxing in his theatre and his theory of theatre, we have to take into account two pairs of phenomena: sport vs. physical culture, and avant-garde theatre vs. bourgeois drama. At the same time, it is important to notice that sport, as something of Anglo-Saxon origin, and especially boxing, which became popular on the European continent in its American version, were admired by Brecht and by other avant-garde artists for their masculine power and energy. The energy in theatre, however, was needed to disrupt its cheap fictionality and introduce dialectical imagination of Verfremdungseffect (V-effect, or distancing effect). This was "a hook to the chin" of institutionalized art and of collective disciplinary morality of German tradition.

Open access

Gunnar Sæbø

Abstract

BACKGROUND - In the early 1900s, the industrialization of cigarette production rapidly created the first major expansion in tobacco consumption in modern times. AIMS - This article focuses on the “tobacco problem” as it was understood, debated and sought governed in Norway around the time of the First World War. I identify various attempts to define tobacco as a problem, including arguments put forward by the anti-tobacco movement, the medical profession and politicians. How were health, moral-aesthetic and economic conditions articulated and integrated in these arguments? What (if any) addictive elements of smoking were in focus? I also discuss the association between perceptions of the tobacco problem and political attempts to regulate it. There were repeated calls for a state tobacco monopoly to be introduced and municipal licensing system for the sale of cigarettes. DATA - The data are sourced from the journals Tobakskampen (The Tobacco Fight), the journal of the norwegian medical association and parliamentary documents. FINDINGS - The findings suggest that a) to the extent tobacco was perceived as a social problem, it was a moral one (vice), not a behavioural and dependency problem, which alcohol was perceived to be at the time; b) proposals to establish a tobacco monopoly were based on economic arguments only, and lacked any firm connection to social issues, health and morality; and c) the anti-tobacco movement was socially marginal and their commitment to the municipal licensing idea resulted in large regional variations in public support, too large in fact for the idea to be effective. Although the government did not introduce regulations in the 1920s, the industrialization of cigarettes and subsequent developments in advertising caused a “moral panic” among tobacco opponents and created the modern climate of opinion regarding tobacco.

Open access

Andrzej Wicher

Abstract

Two of the tales mentioned in the title are in many ways typical of the great collections of stories (The Canterbury Tales and Il Decamerone) to which they belong. What makes them conspicuous is no doubt the intensity of the erotic desire presented as the ultimate law which justifies even the most outrageous actions. The cult of eroticism is combined there with a cult of youth, which means disaster for the protagonists, who try to combine eroticism with advanced age. And yet the stories in question have roots in a very different tradition in which overt eroticism is punished and can only reassert itself in a chastened form, its transformation being due to sacrifices made by the lover to become reunited with the object of his love. A medieval example of the latter tradition is here the Middle English romance, Sir Orfeo. All of the three narratives are conspicuously connected by the motif of the enchanted tree. The Middle Ages are associated with a tendency to moralize ancient literature, the most obvious example of which is the French anonymous work Ovide moralisé (Moralized Ovid), and its Latin version Ovidius Moralizatus by Pierre Bersuire. In the case of The Merchant’s Tale and The Tale of the Enchanted Pear-Tree, we seem to meet with the opposite process, that is with a medieval demoralization of an essentially didactic tradition. The present article deals with the problem of how this transformation could happen and the extent of the resulting un-morality. Some use has also been made of the possible biblical parallels with the tales in question.

Open access

Peter Alward

edition. Oxford: Blackwell. Field, Hartry. 1972. Tarski’s Theory of Truth. Journal of Philosophy 69. -- (1986), ‘The Deflationary Conception of Truth’, Fact, Science, and Morality, MacDonald and Wright, eds., Oxford, Basil Blackwell. --. 1994. Deflationary Theories of Meaning and Content. Mind 103:249-84. Grover, Camp, and Belnap. 1975. A Prosentential Theory of Truth. Philosophical Studies 27. Horwich, Paul. 1990. Truth. Oxford: Blackwell. Kaplan, David. 1989. Demonstratives