###### Five Years of Phase Space Dynamics of the Standard & Poor’s 500

and roughness of the stock, and the market state corresponds to a certain distribution of stock in phase space. The novelty of our approach is twofold. First, in Sec. 4.1 , we have developed the novel concept of predictability of states in phase space. Our approach is based on the idea that with some probability a state might be a t -day precursor of another state in phase space. The introduced measure of t -day predictability of a state is a sum of all information components from its t-day precursors. From such a point of view, Markov chains are

###### Petabytes in Practice: Working with Collections as Data at Scale

those which would be available with manual labels alone. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) ( LeCun, Kavukcuoglu, and Farabet, 2010 ) are modeled after mammalian vision, where invariant features of the visual environment that mark a significant event (such as the movement of a predator or prey across the field of vision) are recognized amid the range of incoming stimuli. Its function is to take a first pass at extracting features. It is attempting to recognize characters of text by recognizing the invariant features characteristic of letters in the words. Long

###### Labor Migration in Indonesia and the Health of Children Left Behind

studies on the relationship between child health and socioeconomic outcomes, this study uses anthropometric measures of child health rather than subjective health status. Examples of papers in development studies that employ anthropometric measures of health are Domingues and Barre (2013) for Mozambique, and Brainerd (2010) for the Soviet Union. Also, the longitudinal design of the IFLS allows for the elimination of all unobserved child- and household-level time-invariant characteristics that are correlated with the explanatory variables, removing a major source of

###### Reallocation and the Role of Firm Composition Effects on Aggregate Wage Dynamics

productivity at the two-digit sector level and with a measure of competition (Herfindahl index). This evidence is indirect and only suggestive, and we leave to future research a full test of our hypothesis and an exploration of its implications. The paper proceeds as follows. After describing the data in section 2, we replicate composition studies by employing a standard tool in labor economics to assess differences among groups of workers, the BO decomposition, which we augment with employers’ characteristics – section 3. We proceed by applying on wage data a standard

###### Regional dimension of firm level productivity determinants: the case of manufacturing and service firms in Ukraine

invariant to the intensity of use of observable factor inputs is often employed in the productivity measurement. This measure is called total factor productivity (TFP). The difference in TFP reflects variation in output produced from a fixed set of inputs. Firm with higher-TFP produce greater amounts of output with the same set of observable inputs than firms with lower-TFP. TFP is most easily seen in the formulation of a production function where output is the product of a function of observable inputs and a factor-neutral shifter. This means that TFP is a residual. Over

###### Predictors of Gaming Behavior among Military Peacekeepers – Exploring the Role of Boredom and Loneliness in Relation to Gaming Problems

to be invariant across gender ( Vodanovich et al. 2005 ). Cronbach’s alpha for the BPS-SF in the current study was 0.49 and 0.66 for the subscales lack of internal stimulation and lack of external stimulation, respectively. The Robert’s University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (RULS-8) ( Roberts et al. 1993 ) was used to measure loneliness, which was adapted from the 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. RULS-8 consists of eight items, where respondents indicate how well each item fits according to four response categories (never, seldom, sometimes

###### Some Invariants of Flower Graph

+\frac{5}{3}n$$ Augmented Zagreb Index A ( f ( n×m ) ) S x 3 Q ( n − 2 ) J D x 3 D y 3 f ( x , y ) | x = 1 = 2 3 m n + ( 2 5 − 2 3 .3 + 2.3 ( − 3 ) .4 4 ) n $$S_{x}^{3}Q_{(n-2)}JD_{x}^{3}D_{y}^{3}f(x,y)|_{x=1} \\ =2^{3}mn+(2^{5}-2^{3}.3+2.3^{(-3)}.4^{4})n$$ Measure of Irregularity I R M ( f ( x , y ) ) = 8 n

###### Causal Mathematical Logic as a guiding framework for the prediction of “Intelligence Signals” in brain simulations

, M.K. 2009. Chemically based mathematical model for development of cerebral cortical folding patterns. PLoS Comput Biol. 5(9):e1000524. Thompson, P.M.; Hayashi, K.M.; and et al. 2003. Dynamics of gray matter loss in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 23, 994-1005 Tiesinga, P.H.; and José, J,V. 2000. Robust gamma oscillations in networks of inhibitory hippocampal interneurons. Network. 11, 1-23 Tononi, G.; and Sporns O. 2003. Measuring information integration. BMC Neurosci. 2;4:31. Tononi, G. 2008

###### Spatial control of reflexes, posture and movement in normal conditions and after neurological lesions

{equation}$$ (2) which means that λ * decreases with stretch velocity (v > 0 for muscle stretching and v < 0 for shortening); |j is the sensitivity of the threshold to velocity that possibly can be controlled by dynamic γ-MNs. Term Q is a combined measure of the influence of intermuscular interactions and the history-dependent intrinsic state of MNs (e.g., associated with plateau potentials). In the supra-threshold range, recruitment of motor units and active muscle force increase with the difference between the actual and threshold muscle lengths. Threshold λ * defines

###### A survey on fractal dimension for fractal structures

application of fractals to social sciences (c.f. [ 4 ] and the references therein). The main tool used in these areas to deal with fractals is the fractal dimension since it is their main invariant which throws some useful information about the complexity and irregularitires that a certain set presents once it has been explored with enough level of detail. It is worth mentioning that fractal dimension theory has also been applied in several scientific fields including the study of dynamical and mechanical systems [ 5 , 6 ], diagnosis of diseases (such as osteoporosis [ 7