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Nermin Hande Avcioglu and Isil Seyis Bilkay

Reservoirs of drug resistant bacterial genomes and extrachromosomal DNA segments are a growing problem and cause emergence of new multidrug resistant (MDR) strains [ 1 ]. Antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella infections are causing increasing morbidity and mortality, and an increase in health care costs worldwide. In epidemiological research, not only phenotypical analysis, but also genotypical analysis is conducted by using various molecular typing methods such as plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find genetic

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Fatemeh Dabbagh, Afshin Borhani Haghighi and Younes Ghasemi

. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999; 40:1921-6. 11. Zierhut M, Mizuki N, Ohno S, Inoko H, Gul A, Onoe K, et al. Human genome and diseases: review- immunology and functional genomics of Behcet’s disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003; 60:1903-22. 12. Kalayciyan A, Zouboulis CC. An update on Behcet’s disease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006; 21:1-10. 13. Gul A. Standard and novel therapeutic approaches to Behcet’s disease. Drugs. 2007; 67:2013-22. 14. Altenburg A, Papoutsis N, Orawa H, Martus P, Krause L, Zouboulis

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Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Sadia Anjum, Zia-ur-Rehman Farooqi, Mamoona Noreen, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhammad Ashraf and Ishtiaq Qadri

References 1. Tregouöt Tregouet DA, Konig RI, Erdmann J, Munteanu A, Braund PS, Hall AS, et al. Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the SLC22A3- LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a risk locus for coronary artery disease. Nat Gen. 2009; 4:283-5. 2. Murray CJL, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Boston, Mass: Harvard School of Public Health. 1996. 3. Pakistan Medical Research

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Gloudina M. Hon, Rajiv T. Erasmus and Tandi E. Matsha

herpes virus-6 structure, coding content and genome evolution. Virology. 1995; 209:29-51. 11. Sanders VJ, Felisan S, Waddell A, Tourtellotte WW. Detection of herpesviridae in post-mortem multiple sclerosis brain tissue and controls by polymerase chain reaction. J Neurovirol. 1996; 2:249-58. 12. Taus C, Pucci E, Cartechini E, Fie A, Guiliani G, Clementi M, et al. Absence of HHV-6 and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2000; 101:224-8. 13. Opsahl ML, Kennedy PGE. Early

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Chiranjib Chakraborty, Saptarshi Banerjee, Kankana Banerjee, Minna J. Hsu and Govindasamy Agoramoorthy

. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 1818-24. 11. Ikejima K, Takei Y, Honda H, Hirose M, Yoshikawa M, Zhang YJ, et al. Leptin receptor-mediated signaling regulates hepatic fibrogenesis and remodeling of extracellular matrix in the rat. Gastroenterology 2002; 122:1399-410. 12. Saxena NK, Ikeda K, Rockey DC, Friedman SL, Anania FA. Leptin in hepatic fibrosis: evidence for increased collagen production in stellate cells and lean littermates of ob/ob mice. Hepatology 2002; 35:762-71. 13. Hopkins AL, Groom CR. The druggable genome. Nature Rev

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Sinitdhorn Rujirabanjerd, Oradawan Plong-on, Thanya Sripo and Pornprot Limprasert

detecting sequential duplications or small deletions [ 13 ]. Whole-genome screening using a microarray technique for detecting any chromosomal rearrangements including subtelomeric aberrations is currently the best available first-tier diagnostic test for individuals with MR and dysmorphism [ 14 , 15 ]. However, this technique is not available at many diagnostic laboratories because it requires a substantial investment in equipment and resources. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is another method for subtelomeric screening, and has the advantage

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Md. Rajdoula Rafe, Syeda Naureen Ahmed and Zebunnesa Ahmed

REFERENCES 1. Schuffenecker I, Iteman I, Michault A, Murri S, Frangeul L, Vaney MC, et al. Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak. PLoS Med . 2006;3(7):263. 2. Deller JJ, Russell PK. An analysis of fevers of unknown origin in American soldiers in Vietnam. Ann Inter Med. 1967;66(6):1129-43. 3. McGill PE. Viral infections: α-viral arthropathy. Best Prac & Res Clin Rheumat . 1995;9(1):145-50. 4. Adebajo AO. Rheumatic manifestations of tropical diseases. Curr Opin Rheumatol . 1996;8(1):85-9. 5

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Xiaoying Ji, Jinxiu Li and Xudong Xiang

. Cell. 2004; 116:281-97. 14. Lee RC, Feinbaum RL, Ambros V. The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14. Cell. 1993; 75: 843-54. 15. Friedman RC, Farh KKH, Burge CB, Bartel DP. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs. Genome Res. 2009; 19:92-105. 16. Calin GA, Sevignani C, Dumitru CD, Hyslop T, Noch E, Yendamuri S, et al. Human microRNA genes are frequently located at fragile sites and genomic regions involved in cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004

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Chakrapol Sriaroon, John N. Greene, Albert L. Vincent, Veronica T. Tucci, Mohamed A. Kharfan-Dabaja and Ramon Sandin

References 1. Carbone M, Rizzo P, Grimley PM, Procopio A, Mew DJ, Shridhar V, et al. Simian virus-40 large-T antigen binds p53 in human mesotheliomas. Nat Med. 1997; 3: 908-12. 2. Agostini HT, Ryschkewitsch CF, Brubaker GR, Shao J, Stoner GI. Five complete genomes of JC virus type 3 from Africans and African Americans. Arch Virol. 1997; 142:637-55. 3. Chatterjee M, Weyandt TB, Frisque RJ. Identification of archetype and rearranged forms of BK virus in leukocytes from healthy individuals. J Med Virol. 2000; 60

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Rungnapa Ittiwut, Pichit Siriwan, Kanya Suphapeetiporn and Vorasuk Shotelersuk

-16. Pisek A Pitiphat W Chowchuen B Pradubwong S Oral health status and oral impacts on quality of life in early adolescent cleft patients J Med Assoc Thai 2014 10 7 16 17 Koillinen H, Lahermo P, Rautio J, Hukki J, Peyrard- Janvid M, Kere J. A genome-wide scan of nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO) in Finnish multiplex families. J Med Genet. 2005; 42:177-84. 10.1136/jmg.2004.019646 Koillinen H Lahermo P Rautio J Hukki J PeyrardJanvid M Kere J A genome-wide scan of nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO) in Finnish multiplex families J Med