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Vladimir Lyakh, Kazimierz Mikołajec, Jerzy Sadowski, Zbigniew Witkowski, Dariusz Gierczuk and Karol Gryko

competitions Number of single performances Sport Number of days of competitions Number of single performances artistic gymnastics 20-30 150-200 table tennis 75-80 380-420 diving 20-30 250-320 water polo 50-55 70-85 fencing 30-40 415-480 handball 70-80 70-80 high jump 35-45 120-180 freestyle wrestling 30-40 50-70 long jump 35-45 120-180 Greco-Roman wrestling 30-40 50-70 hammer throw 35-45 120-180 boxing 25-30 25-30 sprints (100 m and 200 m races) 22-26 28

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Maria Zomeni and Ioannis. N. Vogiatzakis

Fragmentation due to Transportation Infrastructure. National State of the Art Report Cyprus. Management Committee -COST 341/8 - CY. Carroll, C., Phillips, M. K., Schumaker, N. H. & Smith, D. W., (2003). Impacts of Landscape Change on Wolf Restoration Success: Planning a Reintroduction Program Based on Static and Dynamic Spatial Models. Conservation Biology (17): 536-548. Clevenger, A. P., Chruszcz, B., & Gunson, K. E. (2001). Highway mitigation fencing reduces wildlife-vehicle collisions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 646-653. CEC

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Alina Baranova, Udo Schickhoff, Shunli Wang and Ming Jin

-Tibet Plateau. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 7: 1428-1435. Wildi, O. 2010: Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 211 pp. Wrage, N., Strodthoff, J., Cuchillo, H. M., Isselstein, J. & Kayser, M. 2011: Phytodiversity of temperate permanent grasslands: ecosystem services for griculture and livestock management for diversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 3317-3339. Wu, G. L., Du, G. Z., Liu, Z. H. & Thirgood, S. 2009: Effect of fencing and grazing on a Kobresia

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Yuhong Wen, Yi Peng, Feng Zhao and Kexin Zhen

sporting events such as running, fencing, riding and shooting. The time spent on swimming training is limited; thus, the athletes seldom focus on their turning skills. The pre-test results showed that the athletes had potential to improve their turning skills. The aforementioned drills were efficient in making the participants aware of the importance of their stroke count to specific signals and of maintaining their speed when approaching the turn. Furthermore, through observation and emphasis, they did not raise their head before the somersault, which helped make quick

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M. Walsh, J.P. Hanrahan, L. O’Malley and R. Moles

( Table 4 ). The apparently small difference in stocking rate (in the more intensive direction) between this flock and NFS flocks cannot account for the differences in performance, suggesting that the differences resulted from a more appropriate management system on the Teagasc farm. It is clear that appropriate management and shepherding practices are required both to achieve and to maximise sustainable returns from hill grazing in this environment. The use of ‘virtual fencing’ (e.g., strategically placed, sound-emitting sensors [ Tiedemann et al ., 1999 ; Anderson

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Seongkwan Cho, Hunhyuk Choi, Robert C. Eklund and Insu Paek

); field hockey (17 males and 16 females); fencing (23 males and 9 females); taekwondo (26 males and 15 females); gymnastics (15 males and 10 females); track and field (21 males and 7 females); judo (17 males and 21 females); weightlifting (15 males); boxing (33 males and 1 female); and badminton (15 males and 10 females). Measures The participants first responded to demographic questions (e.g., gender, age, and sport types) and then the Korean version of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2Kr). The original Sport Anxiety Scale developed as a sport-specific measure of

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Dorota Murzyn

Social Fund; – member state level – the level of the European Regional Development Fund [ERDF] programme with urban-related investment priorities, ring-fencing 5% of funding; – member state level – implementation level, with the involvement of Integrated Territorial Investments as instruments for bottom-up urban actions and the involvement of Community – led local development in urban areas; – local level – project level, where cities have the opportunity to cooperate across borders. During the 2007–2013 programming period

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B. Murphy, P. Crosson, A.K. Kelly and R. Prendiville

sired by stock bulls (sired one calf each) and 11 calves had unknown sires. Animal management Calves were randomly assigned to one of three grazing groups within each concentrate supplementation level and managed on a rotational grazing system during the grazing season, as described by O’Donovan et al . (2002) . Sward quality was maintained by using strip fencing with excess pasture removed as baled silage. Target pre- and postgrazing sward heights were 10 cm and 4 cm, respectively. Concentrate supplementation was offered in a single feed each morning. Calves

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Krystyna Ilmurzyńska

Ursynów managed the estate on its own and actually played the role of local government ( Rogiński 2017 : 42). At the beginning the residents’ activity focused on the organisation of the flats followed by rearrangement balconies and verandas, as well as fencing and planting small gardens. Garden fences that became the borders between private and public space were built informally by individuals ( Pańkow 2016 : 315) and tolerated by the cooperative. Spatial activity focused on greenery as some community gardens were established within the pedestrian path areas

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Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska

’ association. The above examples demonstrate not only the fomenting of tensions and group conflicts, but also the emergence, based upon shared interests of collective entities, of something akin to ‘parkinghoods’, which not only recognise each other internally and integrate in the course of everyday practices, but also develop the ability to recognise and ‘mark’ outside parkers. The most frequent consequence of the emergence of this type of ‘group parking interests’ is fencing of common spaces. An increasingly popular practice is putting up fences, barriers and gates