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T. Maślanka

Abstract

One characteristic of the most common types of glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP), which has a damaging effect on optic nerve axons, leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. Therefore, ocular hypotensive drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for glaucoma. This review article, which is the first part of a two-part series, is dedicated to autonomic drugs which lower IOP by increasing the outflow of aqueous humour. These agents are subdivided into two groups: (a) drugs that lower IOP by increasing the trabecular outflow and the uveoscleral outflow (i.e. nonselective adrenergic agonists), and (b) medications that lower IOP by opening of the drainage angle and by increasing the conventional outflow via the trabecular outflow (i.e. parasympathomimetics). This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on the mechanism of action of these drugs and their effect on IOP in dogs and cats. Moreover, it discusses possible undesirable side effects of these medications and presents the current ideas about their role and position in the medical management of glaucoma in small animals

Open access

Nazila Pourkhalili, Shirin Pournourmohammadi, Fatemeh Rahimi, Sanaz Vosough-Ghanbari, Maryam Baeeri, Seyed Ostad and Mohammad Abdollahi

Comparative Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers, Autonomic Nervous System Blockers, and Free Radical Scavengers On Diazinon-Induced Hyposecretion Of Insulin From Isolated Islets of Langerhans in Rats

Hyperglycaemia has been observed with exposure to organophosphate insecticides. This study was designed to compare the effects of calcium channel blockers, alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and muscarinic receptor blockers, and of free radical scavengers on insulin secretion from diazinon-treated islets of Langerhans isolated from the pancreas of rats using standard collagenase digestion, separation by centrifugation, and hand-picking technique. The islets were then cultured in an incubator at 37 °C and 5 % CO2. In each experimental set 1 mL of 8 mmol L-1 glucose plus 125 μg mL-1 or 625 μg mL-1 of diazinon were added, except for the control group, which received 8 mmol L-1 glucose alone. The cultures were then treated with one of the following: 30 μmol L-1 atropine, 100 μmol L-1 ACh + 10 μmol L-1 neostigmine, 0.1 μmol L-1 propranolol, 2 μmol L-1 nifedipine, 50 μmol L-1 phenoxybenzamine, or 10 μmol L-1 alphatocopherol. In all experiments, diazinon significantly reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at both doses, showing no dose dependency, as the average inhibition for the lower dose was 62.20 % and for the higher dose 64.38 %. Acetylcholine and alpha-tocopherol restored, whereas atropine potentiated diazinon-induced hyposecretion of insulin. Alpha-, beta- and calcium channel blockers did not change diazinon-induced effects. These findings suggest that diazinon affects insulin secretion mainly by disturbing the balance between free radicals and antioxidants in the islets of Langerhans and by inducing toxic stress.

Open access

Chloé Langeard

Abstract

The rise of atypical forms of employment invites us to scrutinize unemployment benefit provision. Unlike the modern world of employment, based on “standard employment contract,” wage-earners in the performing arts advocate for the highly flexible regime of “intermittent” employment. Through the study of the effects of a deregulated market on careers, status and meaning of work, shared by atypical wage-earners, our aim is to understand the informal role of this compensation policy for their self-conception.

Open access

Łukasz Marchel

Abstract

This article presents alternative way of distance measurement to the preceding vehicle. Investigations were conducted for the purpose of assessing the possibility of using automatic determination of a car plate size in a photograph picture, and basing on that computing range to a vehicle. The first part describes the research methodology relating to angular measurements made with a still camera, The second part includes the method employed to automatically detect area occupied by a registration plate in a picture of a vehicle. The final part contains the mechanism of calculating distance to a car and the results of the investigation which justify using described method as a tool for range measurement.

Open access

György Szerbhorváth

Abstract

In this paper, we will attempt to outline the process of how the nationality/minority rights, especially the minority language rights, were changed in the former Yugoslavia in the next period of times: … and how they have changed in Serbia since 1990, and in Vojvodina. We present the most significant constitutional and legal changes, their impact on the institutional and everyday life, and the language policy tendencies.

Finally, we discuss how the formation of the Serbian National Councils have shaped the linguistic rights of minorities in Vojvodina, in particularly after 2009, through examining the work, experiences, and the strategy of the Hungarian National Council and the Hungarians living there.

Open access

Carolin Amlinger

Abstract

This article considers the normative conceptions and images that contemporary German fiction authors associate with their own work. On the basis of twenty narrative interviews, the article examines the extent to which the different self-reflections of authors manifest themselves in subjective interpretations and literary practices, which in turn reflect the economic and social structure of the literary field. This study aims at an empirical reconstruction of typical notions of authorship.

Open access

Aleksandar Stojanović

Summary

Although it is yet to be systematically investigated where the initiative for fiscal decentralization came from, limited evidence suggests that decentralization offers great opportunities to improve the delivery of public services, and that the result depends on the type of decentralization that has been implemented and the institutions that implement it. Not rare are the examples that decentralization is implemented haphazardly without a proper legal framework and clearly defined rules or is simply imported from another country, without taking into account whether the local authorities in the country are able to carry out their responsibilities. Decentralization is often a matter of political reality, and in itself, it is neither good nor bad.

Fiscal decentralization is especially topical in many countries due to fears of further growth in public spending. Data on the extent of public spending in most countries, especially in the last two decades show the constant increase in public spending in GDP. The results of numerous studies on the subject indicate the high degree of correlation between fiscal decentralization and growth of public spending in a way that centralization is associated with a greater share of public spending in GDP. Therefore, a part of the professional community has long held the view that fiscal decentralization contributes to greater efficiency in the allocation of resources and reduces the amount of public spending.

Open access

Doina Mureşan

Abstract

Regionalization can be translated into the desire to reach balance in economic development, through raising the level of developing areas and, in this respect, regionalism advocates for raising the region at decision level. Whether it is about regionalism or about regionalization, both would benefit from decentralization, which also yields the multi-level government process.

Open access

Jani Sota

Abstract

This is now a well known axiom, that to judge the level of emancipation of a particular society, one should know the extent of her education. Because of the system’s nature, Albanian and foreign historiography has not been tackling a lot with the problems of higher education after 1990, seeing it from the perspective of the interests of the Albanian democratic state anyway, in terms of the transition, although with difficulties, efforts to change were not interrupted. The transition from totalitarianism to pluralist democracy and a free market economy also raised the issue of a radical change in the education field, a radical restructure, a radical democratic reform throughout work and life. Everything that happened after this period, especially in higher education, destroyed the “foundations” of the traditional high school influence by marxism-leninism, paving the way to new decentralized changes to achieve the highest quality indicators, through the step by step perfection of the university documentation, and efforts for the preparation of specialists, who are able to have direct access in manufacturing as well. The transformation of higher education began when our country was undergoing the transition period. In this study we will focus on the general analysis of the efforts of the Albanian government in front of incomplete standards in the higher educational system, reorganization of the school, in the framework of the change of the political system and the tranformation of socio-economic in Albania. Then it will be elaborated the intensity of changes and the results that are obviously noticed from one stage to the other, also some aspects of the reorganization process and the consolidation of higher education.

Open access

Natalia Levshina

Abstract

The contrast between direct and indirect causation is the most widely discussed semantic distinction in the literature on causative constructions. This distinction has been claimed to correlate with a number of formal parameters, such as formal distance, productivity and length, which are linked to different functional and diachronic explanations based on the principles of iconicity and economy. The present study tests these claims on a typologically representative sample of languages from 46 diverse families, examining four formal variables and their association with (in)directness of causation. According to the data, formal length displays the most pervasive association with the semantic distinction in question, which supports the economy-based explanation. In addition, the relative prominence of the other formal parameters depends on the type of causatives and their stage of grammaticalization.