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Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas, Małgorzata Cytryńska and Teresa Jakubowicz

References Boman H. G. 1995. Peptide antibiotics and their role in innate immunity. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 13, 61-92. Boman H. G., Nilsson-Faye I., Paul K., Rasmuson T. Jr. 1974. Insect immunity. 1. Characteristics of an inducible cell-free antibacterial reaction in hemolymph of Samia cynthia pupae. Infect. Immun. 10, 136-145. Bradford M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal

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Isaac J. Asiedu-Gyekye, Abdulai Seidu Mahmood, Charles Awortwe and Alexander K. Nyarko

Abstract

Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is an antiseptic with antiviral and antibacterial properties used in a variety of products including wound care dressings, contact lens cleaning solutions, perioperative cleansing products, and swimming pool cleaners. There are regulatory concerns with regard to its safety in humans for water treatment. We decided to assess the safety of this chemical in Sprague-Dawley rats. PHMB was administered in a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube as per the manufacturer’s instruction within a dose range of 2 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Subchronic toxicity studies were also conducted at doses of 2 mg/kg, 8 mg/kg and 32 mg/kg body weight and hematological, biochemical and histopathological findings of the major organs were assessed. Administration of a dose of 25.6 mg/kg, i.e. 1.6 mL of 0.4% PHMB solution (equivalent to 6.4×103 mg/L of 0.1% solution) resulted in 50% mortality. Histopathological analysis in the acute toxicity studies showed that no histopathological lesions were observed in the heart and kidney samples but 30% of the animals had mild hydropic changes in zone 1 of their liver samples, while at a dosage of 32 mg/kg in the subchronic toxicity studies, 50% of the animals showed either mild hepatocyte cytolysis with or without lymphocyte infiltration and feathery degeneration. Lymphocyte infiltration was, for the first time, observed in one heart sample, whereas one kidney sample showed mild tubular damage. The acute studies showed that the median lethal dose (LD50) is 25.6 mg/kg (LC50 of 1.6 mL of 0.4% PHMB. Subchronic toxicological studies also revealed few deleterious effects on the internal organs examined, as seen from the results of the biochemical parameters evaluated. These results have implications for the use of PHMB to make water potable.

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Małgorzata Grabarczyk, Katarzyna Wińska, Wanda Mączka, Bartłomiej Potaniec and Mirosław Anioł

‒451. Elkhayat, E. 2009. Cytotoxic and antibacterial constituents from the roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. growing in Egypt. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 5: 324‒328. Erosa-Rejón, G., Peña-Rodríguez, L.M. & Sterner O. 2009. Secondary Metabolites from Heliotropium angiospermum. Journal of Mexican Chemical Society, 53: 44‒47. Fernandez, I., Pedro, J.R. & Polo, E. 1995. Sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea alba and C. conifera. Phytochemistry, 38: 655‒657. Fujita, E., Saeki, Y., Ochiart, M. et al. 1972. Investigation of the Neutral

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Farhan Ahmad, Mohd Alam, Zeenat Khan, Roop Khar and Mushir Ali

Development and in vitro evaluation of an acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal gel for mixed vaginal infections

An acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal (ABBV) gel was developed for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections. Different bioadhesive polymers were evaluated on the basis of their bioadhesive strength, stability and drug release properties. Bioadhesion and release studies showed that guar gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcelullose K4M formed a good combination of bioadhesive polymers to develop the ABBV gel. Monosodium citrate was used as an acid buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4). The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. The ex vivo retention study showed that the bioadhesive polymers hold the gel for 12-13 hours inside the vaginal tube. Results of the in vitro antimicrobial study indicated that the ABBV gel had better antimicrobial action than the commercial intravaginal drug delivery systems and retention was prolonged in an ex vivo retention experiment.

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Marianna Hundáková, Marta Valášková, Magda Samlíková and Erich Pazdziora

References [1] BRIGATTI, M. F., GALAN, E., THENG, B. K. G. Structures and mineralogy of clay minerals. In: Bergaya F., Theng B.K.G. and Lagaly G. (Eds.), Handbook of Clay Science, Elsevier, Oxford, 2006, pp. 19-86. [2] LI, B., YU, S., HWANG, J. Y., SHI, S. Antibacterial Vermiculite Nano-Material. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering. 2002, I, pp. 61-68. [3] DRELICH, J., LI, B., BOWEN, P., HWANG, J.-Y., MILLS, O., HOFFMANN, D. Vermiculite decorated with copper nanoparticles: Novel

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Jana Kaduková, Oksana Velgosová, Anna Mražíková, Renáta Marcinčáková and Eva Tkáčová

nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechn. Adv., 27, 2009, 76-83. SARAVANAKUMAR, A., GANESH, M., JAYAPRAKASH, J., JANG, H.T.: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cassia tora leaf extract and its antioxidant and antibacterial activities. J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 2015 (article in press). SHARMA, K.V., YNGARD, R.A., LIN, Y.: Silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities. Adv. Coll. Interface Sci., 145, 2009, 83-96. STN 83 8303 Testing of dangerous properties of wastes. Ecotoxicity. Acute toxicity tests on

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Şerban Andrei Gâz Florea, Diana Ciurca, Anca Mare, Adrian Man, Bogdan Cordoş, Anda-Lavinia Grama and Daniela-Lucia Muntean

;104:611-618. 22. Samy RP, Thong TWJ et al. Antibacterial activity of snake, scorpion and bee venoms: a comparison with purified venom phospholipase A2 enzymes. J Appl Micriobiol. 2007;102:650-659. 23. Ständker L, Harvey AL, Béress L. et al. Improved method for the isolation, characterization and examination of neuromuscular and toxic properties of selected polypeptide fractions from the crude venom of the Taiwan cobra Naja naja atra. Toxicon 2012;60:623-631. 24. Zaqueo KD, Kayano AM, Stábeli RG et al. Isolation and biochemical characterization of

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Basel Saleh, Razan Hammoud and Ayman Al-Mariri

References 1. Anowi CF, Cardinal NC, Mbah CJ, Onyekaba TC. Antimicrobial properties of the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Nauclea Latifolia. IJPI’S J Pharma Herb Form 2012; 2: 10-21. 2. Adebayo-Tayo BC, Odeniyi AO. Phytochemical screening and microbial inhibitory activities of Ficus Capensis. Afr J Biomed Res 2012; 15: 35- 40. 3. Josephs GC, Ching FP, Nnabuife AC. Investigation of the antimicrobial potentials of some phytochemical extracts of leaf and stem bark of Berlinia grandiflora (Leguminoceae

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M. Bartmanski

., Silver release from silver-containing hydroxyapatite coatings, Surface and Coatings Technology. 205 (2010) 1892-1896. 21. Zhang W., Chu P.K., Enhancement of antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of polyethylene by silver and copper plasma immersion ion implantation, Surface and Coatings Technology. 203 (2008) 909-912. 22. Stanić V., Janaćković D., Dimitrijević S., Tanasković S.B., Mitrić M., Pavlović M.S., Krstić A., Jovanović D., Raičević S., Synthesis of antimicrobial monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone

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J. Lungevics, A. Leitans, J. Rudzitis, N. Bulahs, P. Nazarovs and V. Kovalenko

REFERENCES 1. Safi, I. (2000). Recent aspects concerning DC reactive magnetron sputtering of thin films. Surface & Coatings Technology, 127 (2–3), 203–219. 2. Berman, D., Erdemir, A., and Sumant, V. A. (2013). Few layer graphene to reduce wear and friction on sliding steel surfaces. Elsevier, Carbon 54 , 454–459. 3. Chan, Y. H., Huang, C. F., Ou, K. L., and Peng, P. W. (2011). Mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of copper doped diamond-like carbon films. Surface & Coatings Technology. 206 (6), 1037–1040. 4. Cabioc’h, T