The presence of water is one of the decisive factors of landscape’s natural potential. Water affects landscape’s predisposition for agricultural production, water supply available to the wide population and industry (the most important is the yield of water resources). Ponds, lakes and other water areas are zones of recreation and relaxation. Near sources mineral water, several world-famous spas were build. Waterways are also used to generate electricity. Geothermal underground water represents a very significant landscape potential. Determining hydrological potential of the area is important for the regional development. This paper assesses the landscape potential for water management regarding its surface waters in the micro-region Minčol. The micro-region was divided by a square grid, and for each square, we determined the appropriateness of this potential based on score points. The determining evaluation criteria were static reserves of surface water, waterway ranking and annual average discharge. First, we determined the significance (value) of individual criteria (classification characteristics), and then we calculated the values of individual classifiers, which were then multiplied by the value of the individual classifier intervals. The summary of points in each square belongs to a particular degree of suitability for water management based on surface waters. The potential was divided into five degrees (intervals): very unfavourable potential, unfavourable potential, moderately favourable potential, favourable potential and very favourable potential.
Riry Prihatini, Farihul Ihsan and Ni Luh Putu Indriyani
The molecular analysis of 32 durian F1 hybrids, resulted from crossing of the Arp 8990 (female parent) and ‘Otong’ (male parent), was conducted in order to determine the genetic characteristics of hybrids and parents, as it would be followed/evidenced by the variability of traits produced from the cross breeding. The RAPD analyses of 14 primers resulted in 114 scoring bands, 112 (98.2%) of them were polymorphic, with 4 to 11 bands amplified per primer. The electrophoresis gel of the PCR results revealed that some hybrids produced different band patterns compared to the parents; this indicated the crossing between parents’ alleles and trait combinations from both the parents. The Dice-Sorensen similarity coefficient demonstrated that most of the hybrids had distant genetic similarities with both parents, which were ranged from 0.141 [71B(4) and 72B(15)] to 0.776 [71B(15) and 48B(1)]. The UPGMA method was used to construct the dendrogram, which grouped the hybrids in five clusters with distinct genetic relationships and was confirmed with the PCA analysis. This result implied that above crossing produced hybrids having characters different from the parents.
Tomáš Bohdal, Josef Navrátil and František Sedláček
Riparian stands along streams are important landscape elements – biocorridors, allowing the dispersal of many small terrestrial mammals. Streams are, however, also barriers limiting dispersal, which leads to isolation and population-genetic changes. Communities of small terrestrial mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia) were studied in 2004 to 2006 on five watercourses of varying widths in Central European cultural landscape situated in South Bohemia (Czech Republic). In total, 547 individuals from 10 species were captured by the Capture-Mark-Recapture method (CMR). Yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) were eu-dominant species at all locations. Species diversity and equitability rose with the degree of the barrier – proportional to the width of the stream.
The terrestrial mobility of selected species was also assessed. Apodemus flavicollis indicated overall highest values of mobility, and Myodes glareolus males also scored higher values, however, the width of the stream did not correlate with mobility in these species. The animals crossed water-courses on the order of tens of meters wide in the period of 3 months. The frequency of crossing of Apodemus flavicollis decreased exponentially with the width of the stream and was dependent on population density.
Rosen S. Sokolov, Bistra Y. Atanassova and Elena T. Iakimova
In this study, the effects of compounds providing Fe in chelated (NaFeEDTA and Fe(III)AC) and non-chelated (FeSO4·7H2O) forms as components of culture media, on in vitro shoot multiplication and rooting of Magnolia soulangeana ‘Alexandrina’, Magnolia grandiflora and Prunus cerasifera ‘Nigra’ were comparatively evaluated. Each of the tested chemicals was used as a single Fe source in the basal salt medium. In the stages of shoot multiplication and rooting plant response was scored by biometrical indices (number of shoots, leaves and roots, shoot and root length, percent of rooted plants and root hairs). The occurrence of physiological disorders was estimated by visual observations. In presence of FeSO4, symptoms of chlorosis, hyperhy-dricity, early senescence and specific morphology of roots, suggesting Fe deficiency, were observed. These deteriorations were entirely prevented at the application of Fe chelates of which, in this experimental systems, Fe(III)AC was tested for the first time. The addition of Fe(III)AC positively affected the plant quality to extent comparable to that of NaFeEDTA. The obtained data suggest that both applied Fe chelates are more appropriate than non-chelated Fe form and can be alternatively used in the optimization of nutrient media for micropropagation of Magnolia and Prunus cerasifera genotypes.
Yasin Ozdemir, Nesrin Aktepe Tangu, Aysun Ozturk, Mehmet Emin Akcay and Sezai Ercisli
Some important physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of raw and processed olives (processed by the same scratched table olive process) were investigated. In the study, six candidate cultivars obtained by cross-breeding and one standard cultivar (‘Domat’) grown together in an olive breeding and observation plot in the Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Turkey were investigated. Fruit weight and flesh-to-seed ratio of fresh raw olives ranged from 5.18 to 7.65 g and 4.8 to 6.3, respectively. LT011 had the highest fruit weight, whereas LT001 and LE001 had the highest flesh-to-seed ratio. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the produced table olives were estimated between 102 and 141 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g−1fresh weight, and 13.4 and 14.9 µmol Trolox 100 g−1, respectively. Fruits of LT001 had higher appearance, taste, bitterness and general appreciation scores than the others. LT001 showed a lesser loss of oleuropein absorbance and antioxidant activity than the others during processing. The results of this study revealed that LE001, LT001 and LT011 had superior characteristics for the production of scratched green table olives.
Dorota Konopacka, Krzysztof P. Rutkowski, Dorota E. Kruczyńska, Anna Skorupińska and Witold Płocharski
The eating quality of nine new pear cultivars grown in Poland was investigated in 2008-2011. Fruits of two summer cultivars: ‘Alfa’ and ‘Radana’, as well as late season varieties: ‘Hortensia’, ‘Dicolor’, ‘Concorde’, ‘Uta’, ‘Xenia’, ‘Erika’ and ‘Verdi’ were compared to fruits of ‘Clapp’s Favorite’ and ‘Conference’, which were taken as cultivars of reference. Fruits of all cultivars were harvested from the Experimental Orchard of the Research Institute of Horticulture at the commercial maturity stage and stored at +2.5 °C or -0.5 °C in a normal atmosphere (NA) or at -0.5 °C in a controlled atmosphere (CA) (0.7% CO2 : 2% O2) for 6 to 16 weeks. At the end of storage, the fruits of each cultivar were subjected to an individual ripening schedule at 18 °C (up to 14 days), which generated samples of diversified quality attributes. Based on instrumental analyses and descriptive sensory assessment the quality attributes of each cultivar were examined. The gathered data on the dynamics of quality attribute changes during the ripening stage confirm that each new cultivar needs an individual strategy during storage and ripening in order to maximise their specific sensory attributes to increase potential market value. The obtained data leads to the conclusion that ‘Xenia’ and ‘Concorde’ fruits have the biggest chance to fulfil consumer expectations, as they were appreciated more than the reference ‘Conference’ cultivar. Among the others also ‘Hortensia’, ‘Verdi’ and ‘Dicolor’ were scored higher than ‘Conference’, but their advantages were not so evident.
It is said that small and intermediate size towns play a significant role in the socio-economic transformation of regional spaces through diffusion of innovations. It, however, has been hypothesized here that in this diffusion process the villages having better infrastructural facilities and services, play central role. For its analysis, the study takes the case of a region consisting of three administrative districts - Raebareli, Sultanpur and Pratapgarh, of the Uttar Pradesh state of India. These districts have remained in political focus since India’s independence and have elected two prime-ministers and some most influential politicians of their times in quest of development. However, the condition of development here is still deplorable. These districts have 22 statutory towns, and are least urbanized in the state. The towns are mainly administrative or market centres in nature serving surrounding villages by their backward and forward linkages. The study analyses ‘Z scores’ of select services to measure the level of development at block and village level, and portrays the spatial arrangement of towns in development setting of the region. The study observes that while towns are instrumental in promoting regional development, the role of ‘rurban’ centres (high service villages) in the process of diffusion of development is pivotal.
Puthan Variyam Vidya and Kumari Chidambaran Chitra
The purpose of the present study is to extend knowledge on the adverse effects of nanoparticles by evaluating genotoxicity as environmental risk assessment in Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of the selected nanoparticles, namely silicon dioxide (SiO2NPs-12mg/L), aluminium oxide (Al2O3NPs-4mg/L), titanium dioxide (TiO2NPs-16.4mg/L) and iron oxide (Fe3O4NPs-15mg/L) for short-term (24, 72 and 96 h) and long-term durations (15, 30 and 60 days). Genetic damages such as cytoplasmic, nuclear and DNA damage were measured in the erythrocytes of fish by using standard genotoxicity tests such as micronucleus test and comet assay. The frequencies of micronuclei along with nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities were scored and compared with the control group. The intensity of micronuclei along with other nuclear and cytoplasmic anomalies are found to be increased significantly (p<0.05) in time-dependent manner in all exposure groups when compared to the control group, thereby indicating chromosomal damage as a result of contact with nanoparticles. The tail length and percent of tail DNA within the comet significantly (p<0.05) increased in time-dependant manner after exposure to all nanoparticles, demonstrating an increase in DNA damage. Taken together, by using micronucleus test and comet assay, it is evident that the selected nanoparticles at sublethal concentrations induced genetic damage in Oreochromis mossambicus.
Chilka Saha, Saida Parveen, Joy Chakraborty, Soujita Pramanik and Gautam Aditya
The life table characteristics of the invasive snail Physa acuta were assessed in the laboratory using the individuals occurring in a newly colonised area in Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Using the changes in the shell length and the body weight of the snails as surrogate, the population growth of the snails was estimated along with longevity and the fecundity schedule. The cohort of P. acuta lived for a maximum of 22 weeks with a life expectancy (ex) of 7.27 weeks and the age-specific survivorship being 0.825. Increment of the shell length of the snails complied with the von Bertalanffy growth equation, lt = 11.75(1 − exp−0.17(t−0.06)), and the observed and the expected data of the length at time t (lt) did not vary significantly (z score = 0.230; P = 0.818; n=20 pairs). Following attainment of sexual maturity between 28 and 42 days, oviposition continued till 20 weeks time, with 0.1-10 eggs laid by each individual. The eggs present per capsule remained between 01 and 11, whilst the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) were 116.07, 0.1 and 1.11, respectively. The observations are similar to those made earlier on the same species but from African and South American continents. The results of the present observation are pioneer in providing the initial studies about the life history of the invasive snail P. acuta in Indian context. Using the present information as a basis, further studies including long-term population monitoring should be initiated to understand the effects of the invasive snail P. acuta in the freshwater ecosystem of West Bengal, India.
Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES) distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC) types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.