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and power have been positively correlated with body size ( Jaric, 2003 ). Therefore, it remains unknown whether COD measurements obtained from young athletes should be normalized for body size. The Illinois change of direction test (ICODT) has often been considered a standard protocol for assessing COD performance ( Draper and Lancaster, 1985 ). Apart from high overall validity ( Hachana et al., 2013 ), the test could have an advantage in terms of ecological validity as it includes generic cues that closely replicate the majority of movement patterns performed in

in elite volleyball athletes from United Kingdom. British Journal of Sports Medicine 34, 39-43. 15. Jaszczuk J., Wit A., Trzaskoma Z., Iskra L., Gajewski J. (1988). Biomechanical criteria of muscle force evaluation in the aspect of top-level athletes selection. Biology of Sport 5, 51-64. 16. Jaric S., Ugarkovic D., Kukolj M. (2002). Evaluation of methods for normalizing muscle strength in elite and young athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 42, 141-151. 17. de Ruiter C. J., Vermeulen G., Toussaint H.M., de Haan A. (2007). Isometric knee

. Junior tennis players’ preferences for parental behaviors. J Appl Sport Psychol, 22 : 377 - 391 Lee M, Mclean S. Sources of parental pressure among age group swimmers. Eur J Phys Educ , 1997; 2: 167-177 Leff, SS, Hoyle RH. Young athletes’ perceptions of parental support and pressure. J Youth Adolescence , 1995; 24: 187-203 Müller H, Sternad D. Accuracy and variability in goal oriented movements - decomposing gender differences in children. J Human Kinetics , 2004; 12: 31-50 Nuviala A, Gómez-López M, Pérez JA, Nuviala R. Lifestyle and Physical Education. J Human

, Sandberg MB, Schratzberger W, Shih J, Skadberg Ø, Chargui AT, Zaninotto M, Syp - niewska G. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay. Clin Chem Lab Med 2014; 52: 1657-65. 14. Chatard J-C, Mujika I, Goiriena JJ, Carré F. Screening young athletes for prevention of sudden cardiac death: Practical recommendations for sports physicians. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2016; 26: 362-74. 15. The New International Recommendations for Chronic Kidney Disease -

and psychological skills of elite and sub-elite equestrian athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior , 3, 399-409. Murica, J. A. M., Gimeno, E. C., & Coll, D. G. (2007). Young athletes' motivational profiles. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine , 6, 172-179. Newton, M. L. & Duda, J. L. (1993). Elite adolescent athletes' achievement goals and beliefs concerning success in tennis. Journal of Sport and Exercised Psychology , 15, 437-448. Orlick, T. & Partington, J. (1988). Mental links to excellence. Sport Psychologist , 2, 105-130. Pelletier, L. G., Fortier, M. S

. Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht uber die biologischanthropologische Literatur, 65(3): 317-329. 20. Giampietro M., A. Pujia, I. Bertini (2003) Anthropometric features and body composition of young athletes practicing karate at a high and medium competitive level. Acta Diabetol., 40(1): 145-148. DOI: 10.1007/s00592-003-0049-3. 21. Gualdi-Russo E., I. Graziani (1993) Anthropometric somatotype of Italian sport participants. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit., 33(3): 282-291. 22. Iide K., H. Imamura, Y. Yoshimura, A. Yamashita, K. Miyahara, N. Miyamoto, C. Moriwaki (2008) Physiological

alpine skiers. BMC Sports Sci. Med. Rehab., 5(18): 1-12. 33. Steinberg N., D. Nemet, M. Pantanowitz, A. Zeev, M. Hallumi, M. Sindiani, Y. Meckel A. Eliakim (2016) Longitudinal study evaluating postural balance of young athletes. Percept. Mot. Skills, 122(I): 256-279. 34. Tegner Y., J. Lysholm, M. Lysholm, J.A. Gillquist (1986) A performance test to monitor rehabilitation and evaluate anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am. J. Sports Med., 14(2): 156-159. 35. Woo M.T., J.Y. Chow, M. Koh (2014) Effect of Different Attentional Instructions on the Acquisition of a Serial

Introduction The number of preadolescent and adolescent athletes that are involved in different sports and participate in competitions has progressively increased over the recent years culminating with the establishment of the Youth Olympic Games. To that end, there is a large number of young athletes who have been asked to follow structured and demanding programmes with training loads sometimes being comparable to those of adult athletes ( Demorest and Landry, 2004 ). One distinctive period in the developmental process of young people is the adolescent growth

Introduction Sport and exercise are stressful by their nature, and over-stressful activity may produce injury ( Clement et al., 1981 ). The lumbar spine is subjected to considerable stress during many athletic endeavors; therefore, abnormalities involving this region may cause injuries and pain among athletes because of the unique demands of the related sport. Independent variables that contribute individually or in combination to lumbar spine injury include poor technique, poor conditioning, and abnormal anatomy; thus, young athletes may have a spinal deformity

dimensions ( Kavussanu and Stanger, 2017 ). In line with the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action ( Bandura, 1991 ), the significance of a moral behavior lies in the consequences that the behavior has on others. For example, supportive behavior from a teammate can have positive consequences for young athletes, while verbal abuse can have negative consequences ( Kavussanu and Stanger, 2017 ). Specifically, Kavussanu and Boardley (2009) argue that prosocial behavior towards teammates can enhance the recipient’s motivation and performance, whereas