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the parliament four months later, in September 2006. See, also, Kluve and Schmitz (2018). Then, one might expect that there was no self-selection in treatment for parents who conceived child before October 2006 (children born before June 2007). Another potential threat to the validity of identification was the 2007–2009 financial crisis that could have had consequences for the employment and fertility behavior of the population. The empirical evidence suggests that the German economy, unlike the economies of other European countries, did not suffer long

1 Introduction In general, the term overeducation refers to a job match in which the educational level of the worker clearly exceeds the educational requirements of the job. In the terminology of labor economics, this is often considered a vertical skill mismatch, as opposed to horizontal mismatches (workers choosing jobs with requirements outside the scope of their field of study/apprenticeship). A widespread occurrence of this phenomenon can seriously impair the competitiveness of an economy. From a macroeconomic perspective, an overeducation status of

. Western et al.’s (2001) review of the literature concluded that while serving time in prison can diminish an individual’s earnings, administrative data tends to show that employment prospects do not necessarily decrease. However, many recent papers claim employment prospects are diminished, and it could be having an aggregate effect on the economy. Schmitt and Warner (2011) estimate that the ex-offender population lowered the male employment rate in 2008 by 1.5 to 1.7 percentage points, costing the United States about $57–$65 billion. A more recent paper by Abraham

” individuals Ψ 1 DREAM Act take-up rate γ 2 L $\gamma _{2}^{L}$ 0.50 Increased prob. of college enrollment for employed individuals γ 2 N $\gamma _{2}^{N}$ 0.50 Increased prob. of college enrollment for “idle” individuals Notes : Key parameter values. The scenario more consistent with the estimates by ( Pope 2016 ) is δ C = 0 and δ N = 0.07. And in any case we need to have δ C + δ N = 0.07. 6.3 Results As explained above, our calibrated model matches several relevant moments about the US economy in year 2012. Specifically, we match overall GDP and the structure

of Labor Economics, Vol. 3. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1801-1863. Card D. 1999 The Causal Effect of Education on Earnings Ashenfelter O. Card D. Handbook of Labor Economics Amsterdam North-Holland 1801 1863 Chiswick, B. (1999): Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected? American Economic Review 89(2), 181-185. Chiswick B. 1999 Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected? American Economic Review 89 2 181 185 Chiswick, Barry R. (1978): The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-Born Men. Journal of Political Economy 86(55), 897-922. Chiswick Barry R. 1978 The

reflect negatively upon the overall level of job security in the economy. Finally, higher rates of involuntary uptake of part-time and temporary jobs will also be related to higher job insecurity. Employment security refers to the probability of staying in employment during the entire career, but not necessarily in the same job with the same employer. Employment and reemployment opportunities are facilitated by the level of human capital acquired by the individual worker. We differentiate between two types of human capital linked to employment security: educational

than half the population is under the age of 25 years (BPNG 2018; UNFPA 2014). Formal sector employment peaked at 16% of the labor force in 2013 following 6 years of strong economic growth driven from some mining projects; however, since this time the non-mining economy has been undergoing a significant downturn ( Jones and McGavin, 2015 ; BPNG, 2018). Two-thirds of formal sector jobs are in the private sector (heavily concentrated in the wholesale and retail trade sector and construction), with the remainder in the public sector (NSO, 2013; Jones and McGavin, 2015