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Signal void and pseudo-pneumatized sinus in fungal rhinosinusitis – Case report

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Signal void, or the absence of signal on MRI sequences, in the sinonasal region may be encountered in fungal rhinosinusitis cases with the aspect of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, leading to diagnostic errors.

CASE REPORT. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman referred to our clinic for complete and persistent right-sided nasal obstruction. The patient was evaluated using sinus CT and contrast-enhanced head MRI. Opacification of the right maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses as well as of the right nasal fossa were seen on CT, with maxillary sinus expansion and osseous erosion. The MRI showed T2 signal void in the maxillary sinus with extension to the nasal fossa, creating the appearance of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, and hyperintense signal in the ipsilateral anterior ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The dual imaging evaluation of the patient aided the preoperative differential diagnosis and choosing the surgical approach.

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Polypropylene meshes and other alloplastic implants for soft tissue and cartilage nasal reconstructive surgery – a literature review

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The reconstructive surgery is a domain in continuous research for new techniques and alloplastic materials for replacement of complex defects. Different biomaterials are used in soft tissue reconstruction including polypropylene meshes covered with collagen, which have the best results in abdominal and pelvic surgery, but are not yet used in nasal surgery.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We analysed the studies from the literature regarding the different alloplastic implants used in nasal reconstruction surgery, their benefits and contraindications for nasal defects.

RESULTS. The most used polymers are Silicone, Medpor®, Mersilene® and polypropylene. Silicone is no longer widely used in facial reconstructive surgery because of its many complications. Medpor® (high-density polyethylene) is used for reconstruction of the facial skeleton and for aesthetic contour enhancement, including nasal reconstruction. Mersilene® (polyethylene terephthalate) is used for dorsum nasal defect reconstruction. Gore-Tex® is used for soft-tissue augmentation in the nose and is not recommended as a structural graft. Polypropylene meshes (Marlex®) are widely used in abdominal and chest wall reconstructive surgeries, with few studies on using them in nasal cartilage reconstruction.

CONCLUSION. Nasal reconstructive surgery is a difficult part of plastic surgery than can cause many problems to the surgeon, the need for soft tissue and cartilage reconstruction are difficult to solve in a repeatedly operated nose with few autogenous graft options and complex reconstructive surgeries, especially in posttraumatic defects and revision rhinoplasties. There are many alloplastic implants that can be used with excellent results.

Open access
The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. This study examines the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and the pharyngeal parameters using the ultrasound of the submental region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. For this study, data obtained from 40 patients, who had undergone investigations in the Galenus Medical Centre in order to diagnose sleep apnea, was analyzed. The following parameters were compared: the transverse diameter of the retrolingual region, the transverse diameter of the retropalatal region and the tongue base thickness. These regions were measured at different moments of respiration such as: during forced expiration, during forced inspiration and while the patients performed Müller’s Manoeuvre. The neck circumference, the body mass index of patients and the severity of sleep apnea obtained from polysomnography were analyzed.

RESULTS. The evaluation of the results revealed: severe obstructive sleep apnea in 16 patients, respectively moderate severity in 10 patients, mild apnea in 4 patients, and no obstructive sleep apnea in 10 patients. Statistically significant results (p<0.05) were found after comparing the parameters obtained in patients with severe apnea versus the parameters in patients without apnea, with mild or respectively moderate apnea.

CONCLUSION. Based on the results obtained, we consider that cervical ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of severe obstructive apnea, identifying the pathological changes of the anatomical structures that basically cause this category of disease. Due to the fact that in our country ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive method, being also a non-irradiating, repeatable and accessible method, it should be more widely applied also in the field of otorhinolaryngology in order to view structures accessible to this type of imaging.

Open access
The technique of dermoplasty to treat recurrent nasal polyps: preoperative evaluation, surgical details, postoperative endoscopic appearance and histopathologic analysis

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The tendency of the nasal polyps for recurrence is well established and recognized. A potentially effective measure to reduce this tendency seems to be the replacement of the mucosa responsible for polyp growth.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Since February 2012, we have used this method in fifteen patients with intractable polyposis. After a short course of preoperative medication, we performed a detailed computed scan analysis to study the anatomy of the ethmoidal complex and calculate the area and contour of the graft. Under general anaesthesia, we removed the mucosa of the nasal roof and replaced it with a split-thickness skin graft. For maintenance, only a short course of nasal drops every three months seems to suffice.

RESULTS. Excluding the first two cases due to a poor surgical technique, the rest of the cases may be considered successful. All patients experience a functional nose with restored nasal breathing and occasionally olfactory function with only a minimal pharmaceutical aid. Polyps still grow, but they show a much more benign course and are readily responsive to medical treatment. Interestingly, polyps present squamous metaplasia postoperatively. This feature needs further investigation.

CONCLUSION. The method of dermoplasty presents a high potential for control of polyp growth. With only an hour prolongation of surgical time, a minor increase in complication rate and a small increase in morbidity rate, the technique deserves further attention from the rhinological society.

Open access
Cystic fibrosis - general review on sinonasal complications and case report

Abstract

An irreversible disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), is responsible for affecting multiple organ systems containing epithelia. It is well known that the sinonasal disease caused by CF has consequences for the incidence of the lower airway exacerbations, as well as affecting the quality of life of those patients. This review provides an update by evaluating the available literature regarding pathogenesis, management and treatment of cystic fibrosis patients. To gain a better view of the disease and obtain a higher life expectancy, further studies are needed.

Open access
MRSA in recurrent frontal sinusitis

Abstract

The authors present a case of recurrent frontal rhinosinusitis, for which the drug therapy was ineffective. To avert the risk of complications, multiple classic and endoscopic surgical procedures were performed on the frontal sinus pathology.

The bacterium involved in this form of rhinosinusitis was represented by a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) diagnosed during the first endoscopic approach (the second surgical procedure) for which the treatment corresponding to the antibiogram was followed. At the last hospitalization, the patient has underwent a frontal bilateral drainage surgery (modified Lothrop procedure) and started an adequate anti-MRSA treatment.

The authors wondered whether multiple recurrences of frontal rhinosinusitis are determined by an incomplete drainage, by a persistent infection with MRSA or by both.

Open access
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma – literature review and case series

Abstract

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumour of vascular origin found in adolescent males, originating around the sphenopalatine foramen. Although the exact pathogenesis of the tumour is not yet known, natural history and growth patterns can be predicted. JNA progressively involves the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and, in severe cases, an orbital or intracranial extension can be seen. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and imaging is mandatory to ensure the best resectability of the tumour, as small to moderate tumours can be managed exclusively endoscopically. Preoperative angiography can reveal the vascular sources and allow embolization to prevent significant bleeding. We present a brief literature review followed by our case series of endoscopic removal of 7 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas.

Open access
Frontal sinus osteoma
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Symmetry patterning by the causative organism of rhinosporidiosis in culture

Abstract

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic polypoidal infection of the nose, conjunctiva and other sites, believed to be caused by a fungus, Rhinosporidium Seeberi, with a doubtful taxonomy. Polyps contain histological round bodies and the exact mode of infection is not known. The round bodies are filled up with spherules. In tissue the organism forms spherical round bodies approaching 50-500µ in diameter that contain innumerable single-celled organisms that mature at different rates. Mature organisms are approximately 7-9µ in size and escape through a pore that develops in the wall of the round body. The round body does not exist in nature outside the host.

The organism in rhinosporidiosis was believed to be uncultivable, until we cultured it for the first time in our laboratory. We further modified the culture medium and succeeded in culturing the causative agent of the disease in CBEML (Cell Biology and Electron Microcopy Laboratory) medium. Here we present some of the peculiar conspicuous features of the organism in culture leading to symmetry patterning.

Open access
Lymph node tuberculosis – The ENT surgeon approach in four cases

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Lymph node tuberculosis is a pathology with an increasing incidence and prevalence in middle income countries.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present a series of 4 cases with cervical lymph node tuberculosis. We review current principles of diagnosis and treatment from the perspective of the ENT surgeon in a tertiary university clinic.

RESULTS. In each case we underline diagnosis difficulties and treatment options. These cases presented management difficulties due to associated morbidities. All cases underwent surgical excision of the afflicted lymph nodes with subsequent microscopic confirmation of tuberculosis. We illustrate key concepts leading to the microscopy diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis.

CONCLUSION. There are various surgical incidents and accidents that the young surgeon must be aware of when approaching neck tuberculous lymph nodes. Further referral of the patient for long-term tuberculosis treatment is mandatory. All patients were supervised for a minimum of 1 year after the initial diagnosis and treatment with no sign of recurrence. A close cooperation between the ENT surgeon, the infectious disease specialist and the pathologist is the key to an optimum approach to lymph node tuberculosis at the head and neck level.

Open access