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Permeabilization surgery of the upper respiratory tract and its effects on sleep fragmentation and REM sleep

Abstract

Usually, patients with sleep disorders may complain of tiredness, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, difficulty in concentrating, and can reach up to falling asleep in inappropriate situations – condition known as the Pickwick syndrome. To avoid these unpleasant symptoms, a series of surgical procedures regarding the anatomical structures involved in sleep apnea were developed.

The article is a general review regarding the sleep disorders and the influence of upper airways permeability on the quality of sleep and the sleep staging distribution. Also, we present some preliminary data obtained in a clinical study underwent in CESITO Centre “Sfanta Maria” Hospital, Bucharest, involving patients with sleep pathology that had polysomnographic evaluations before and after various surgical procedures of nasal and pharyngeal permeabilization.

AIMS. To determine that permeabilization surgery of the upper airway tract may be used successfully in order to decrease the sleep fragmentation and increase the time of slow-wave sleep.

CONCLUSION. 6 months after the permeabilization surgery of the upper airway tract, the polysomnography reveals that the arousals index decreased and the sleep architecture undergoes changes that consist in decreasing the Stage 1 and Stage 2 sleep, therefore REM sleep reaches a better score.

Open access
Comparative analysis of features of chronic maxillary sinusitis of various genesis

Abstract

BACKGROUND. There are not many works devoted to the structures of a nasal cavity in odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and to a condition of an alveolar ridge of the maxilla with a rhinogenous genesis of the disease.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. 100 patients (N) with chronic sinusitis hospitalized at the ENT (N=50) and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (N=50) Departments were examined. The character of anatomic options of a nasal septum in chronic maxillary sinusitis is estimated according to a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with use of our own developed scheme of coordinates in the form of “triangles” which allows establishing versions of the block of the ostiomeatal complex and nasal septum deviation.

RESULTS. In cases of rhinogenous and odontogenic causes of maxillary sinusitis, the triangle deviation is detected more often, including a perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, the vomer and the quadrangular cartilage, contributing to the block of the ostiomeatal complex. This scheme has allowed us to establish a group of patients with the mixed genesis of maxillary sinusitis in the Otorhinolaryngology and MFS Departments (36% and 42% respectively) and that, in its turn, requires a cross-disciplinary approach when choosing a strategy of treatment.

CONCLUSION. In case of rhinogenous genesis of the disease, the bilateral nature of the process with involvement of other paranasal sinuses in the inflammatory process is detected more often. The category of patients with mixed genesis (rhinogenous plus odontogenic) of sinusitis demands a cross-disciplinary approach to diagnosis and making a decision about treatment strategies.

Open access
Rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope for rhinosurgery and diagnosis

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The rigid endoscope developed by Karl Storz in 1961 led to a great advance in diagnosis and surgery and nowadays it is the gold standard in routine ENT practice. In addition, the development of video cameras has enhanced the surgical abilities as well as teaching opportunities in endoscopic sinus surgery.

OBJECTIVE. We developed a new prototype endoscope using the “chip-on-the-tip” technology. The aim of our non-clinical study was to observe and discuss the experimental data collected from laboratory tests on plastic models.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. The prototype rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope has two parts - inner and outer. The inner part includes the chip-on-the-tip camera, light source and the cable. The outer part is a metal tube ending with a 0-degree lens. We performed laboratory tests of the rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.

RESULTS. We have observed technical parameters of the rigid chip-on-the-tip in order to compare them to conventional endoscopes connected with camera head units that are standard equipment for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.

CONCLUSION. Its advantages compared to the conventional Hopkins endoscope, connected to a standard camera head, are the smaller size, weight and the necessity of only one cable instead of two, allowing easy handling.

Open access
Variations of sphenoid pneumatization: a CBCT study

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The pneumatization pattern of the sphenoid sinus seems rather unpredictable, as resulted from previous studies. It is however extremely important for endoscopic approaches to target structures of the middle cranial fossa, such as the pituitary gland.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We aimed at documenting by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) the possibilities of anatomic variation of the sphenoid sinus. 25 randomly selected patients were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS. In 56%, the left and right sphenoidal sinuses were bilaterally symmetrical with respect to the sagittal pneumatization type: four patients had sellar types, one had presellar type and in nine cases the sphenoidal sinuses were reaching posteriorly to the sella turcica. Only in 8% of cases were found conchal types of pneumatization, but they were part of anatomical pictures including Onodi air cells. Such an Onodi cell presented a posterior (sphenoidal) recess reaching posteriorly and superiorly to the pterygopalatine fossa. The recesses of the sphenoid sinus were also documented: anterior or septal, ethmoidal, maxillary, clinoidal and lateral. In 32% was found a lateral recess only engaged between the vidian and maxillary nerve canals.

CONCLUSION. It appears that CBCT is a reliable tool for accurate anatomic identification of the sphenoid sinus pneumatization pattern, on a case-by-case basis.

Open access
Clinical and imagistic correlations in the inflammatory pathology of nasosinusal cavities

Abstract

This article reviews the pathophysiology and the clinical and imaging diagnosis of rhinosinusal inflammations.

Chronic sinusitis usually develops after an incompletely treated acute sinusitis.

Complications occur through fungal superinfection, osteomyelitis, extension of the inflammatory process in the orbit or adjacent meningoencephalic structures.

The imaging investigation is indicated as the symptoms get worse, for the elucidation of sinus contents, for establishing the therapeutic protocol, for identifying and finding solutions to solve nearby complications.

Open access
Evolution of sinonasal radiological findings in a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Abstract

Wegener’s granulomatosis (Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis) is an autoimmune granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. The basic pathology is necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with necrotizing vasculitis involving medium-sized blood vessels. The typical triad of involvement of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys is observed in varying proportions in individual patients. The sinonasal involvement is observed in the majority of patients and it can be involved in isolation in up to a quarter of affected individuals. The sinonasal changes involve both the soft tissue and bony architecture, with refractory chronic sinusitis associated with erosion of the cartilaginous and bony skeleton and may lead to saddle nose and other facial deformities in advanced cases. The radiology has a contributory role as diagnostic and diseases monitoring aid.

The various radiological findings associated with the disease (bone erosion with osteoneogenesis) have been mentioned in the literature. We present the progression of a radiological abnormality in a patient with a localized form of Wegener’s Granulomatosis and highlight some peculiar appearances observed on radiology in the patient.

Open access
Outcomes of mucociliary clearance and rhinomanometrical changes in nasal pathology

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the nasal pathologies over nasal mucociliary clearance and rhinomanometric parameters.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. This is a retrospective analytical observational clinical study during a period of 6 months, between 2014 and 2015. 123 subjects, 63 of whom had nasal pathology and 60 of whom were healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of nasal pathology was made based on clinical examination, nasal endoscopy and anterior rhinomanometry. A methylene blue test was used to evaluate the mucociliary clearance.

RESULTS. The subjects with nasal pathology had nasal septum deviation (No=50), chronic rhinitis (No=42), rhinosinusitis (No=15) and nasal polyposis (No=17). The mean total air flow in inspiration in nasal pathology patients group was 546.7 ml/s (millilitre/second), with a median of 594 ml/s, comparing with the control group who had the mean air flow of 865.5 ml/s, with a median of 866.5 ml/s. In expiration, the mean air flow in those with nasal pathology was 603.9 ml/s and a median of 611 ml/s, comparing with the control group who had the mean air flow of 871.1 ml/s and a median around 872 ml/s. The mean time from the application of methylene blue liquid to first seeing it in patients with nasal pathology was 23.41 minutes for the right nostril and 23.32 minutes for the left nostril, comparing with the control group who had the mean of mucociliary clearance of 6.76 minutes for the right nostril and 6.93 minutes for the left one.

CONCLUSION. The results obtained in anterior rhinomanometry and methylene blue liquid test showed that nasal pathology does affect nasal physiology and it is an important factor to evaluate the mucociliary clearance.

Open access
Weight loss therapy for obstructive sleep apnea – Literature review

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea is a chronic disease characterized by the appearance of apnea or hypopnea episodes during sleep. This condition is associated with several risk factors. Among them, the most important is obesity and it is the only potentially curable. The treatment is polimodal and it involves several therapeutic directions. The purpose of this paper is to establish the role of obesity in the etiology of sleep apnea, as well as the role of the weight loss in its management, both through intensive lifestyle interventions and surgical therapy.

Open access
Lymph node tuberculosis – The ENT surgeon approach in four cases

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Lymph node tuberculosis is a pathology with an increasing incidence and prevalence in middle income countries.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present a series of 4 cases with cervical lymph node tuberculosis. We review current principles of diagnosis and treatment from the perspective of the ENT surgeon in a tertiary university clinic.

RESULTS. In each case we underline diagnosis difficulties and treatment options. These cases presented management difficulties due to associated morbidities. All cases underwent surgical excision of the afflicted lymph nodes with subsequent microscopic confirmation of tuberculosis. We illustrate key concepts leading to the microscopy diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis.

CONCLUSION. There are various surgical incidents and accidents that the young surgeon must be aware of when approaching neck tuberculous lymph nodes. Further referral of the patient for long-term tuberculosis treatment is mandatory. All patients were supervised for a minimum of 1 year after the initial diagnosis and treatment with no sign of recurrence. A close cooperation between the ENT surgeon, the infectious disease specialist and the pathologist is the key to an optimum approach to lymph node tuberculosis at the head and neck level.

Open access