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Michal Spieszny and Mateusz Zubik

( Debanne and Laffaye, 2011 , 2013 ; Gorostiaga et al., 2006 ; Marques and Gonzalez-Badillo, 2006 ). It seems that the best way to improve the strength of a handball player is to use plyometric exercises ( Gabbett et al., 2008 ; Young et al., 2002 ). Regular use of these exercises increases muscle tolerance to significant eccentric loads and allows for better use of the stretch shortening cycle (SSC). However, this type of training is considered controversial. Many studies confirm the effectiveness of plyometric exercises in increasing the strength and power of

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Vladimir Ermakov

References [1] EFMD, ROI of Management Training and Development: An Innovative Approach to Measurement, European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD), Brussels, Belgium, 2002. [2] 50+20 Report: A Survey on the Future of Business Education , Press Release (19 September 2011), World Business School Council for Sustainable Business (WBSCSB), Globally Responsible Leadership Initiative (GRLI), Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), 2011. [3] PricewaterhouseCoopers, HR Benchmarking

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Frank J. Nugent, Thomas M. Comyns and Giles D. Warrington

emphasis on high-volume, low-intensity training (HVT) ( Lang and Light, 2010 ). The relevance of HVT to the physiological requirements of many swimming events is a long standing topic of discussion in the scientific literature ( Aspenes and Karlsen, 2012 ). One of the earliest researchers on the topic, David Costill, summarised this by stating “it is difficult to understand how swimming at speeds that are markedly slower than the competitive pace for 3 to 4 hours per day will prepare the swimmer for the supramaximal efforts of competition” ( Costill et al., 1991 ). In

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Hubert Makaruk and Tomasz Sacewicz

References Luebbers, P. E., Potteiger, J. A., Hulver, M. W., Thyfault, J. P., Carper, M. J., Lockwood, R. H., Effect of plyometric training and recovery on vertical jump performance and anaerobic power. J Strength Cond Res , 2003, 17(4), 704-709. Potteiger, J. A., Lockwood, R. H., Haub, M. D., Dolezal, B. A., Almuzaini, K. S., Schroeder, J. M. et al., Muscle power and fiber characteristics following 8 weeks of plyometric training. J Strength Cond Res , 1999, 13 (4), 275

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Kai Shiau, Te Hung Tsao and Chang Bin Yang

phenomenon ( Ng et al., 2011 ) can be improved by a regular resistance or weight training program. In addition to the aforementioned merits, anaerobic performance was enhanced after regular resistance training ( Fatouros et al., 2005 ; Santos and Janeira, 2012 ). Considering the aspect of muscular performance, multiple sets or sessions of resistance training were superior to one single set or session of resistance training because of more training volume or loading ( Bottaro et al., 2011 ; Krieger, 2010 ). However, in contrast to the above-mentioned studies regarding

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Krastyu Krastev

References [1] Vasilev D., Y. Merdzanova. Theory and methods of professional orientation. Sofia, UP „St. Kliment Ohridski”, 2003, p.92. [2] Gyurova V. & all, Provocation training process, Sofia, Askoni Publisher, 1997, p.73. [3] Ilieva M., S. Terzieva. Self-evaluation and self-identification - Strategies in educational and scientific policy, Vol. 3., pp.34-42, 2001. [4] Nikov A., Pedagogical psychology, Sofia, Karl Marx Publ., 1989, p.127. [5] Rasheva-Merdzanova Y. Professional

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E. Szarska, A. Cywińska, P. Ostaszewski and A. Kowalska

References Allen BV, Powell DG (1983) Effects of training and time of day of blood sampling on the variation of some common haematological parameters in normal thoroughbred racehorses. In: Equine exercise physiology. Snow DH, Persson SGB, Rose RJ (eds) Granta Editions, Cambridge, pp 327-335. Boffi FM, Lindner A, Lopez RA, Botta V, Sadaba S, Muriel M (2011) Effect of recovery periods during conditioning of horses on fitness parameters. J Equine Vet Sci 3: 661-666. Clayton H (2004) The dynamic horse a

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Michał Polczyk and Marek Zatoń

proteins in human skeletal muscle after sprint interval training and detraining. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2007, 292 (5), 1970-1976, doi: 10.1152/ ajpregu.00503.2006. 7. Zatoń M., Hebisz R., Hebisz P., Physiological effects of training in mountain bicycling [in Polish]. AWF, Wrocław 2011. 8. Bogdanis G.C., Nevill M.E., Boobis L.H., Lakomy H.K. Nevill A.M., Recovery of power output and muscle metabolites following 30 s of maximal sprint cycling in man. J Physiol, 1995, 482 (2), 467-480, doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1995. sp020533

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James Fisher and Christopher Langford

References 1. Phillips S.M., Winett R.A., Uncomplicated resistance training and health related outcomes: Evidence for a public health mandate. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2010, 9 (4), 208-213, doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181e7da73. 2. Westcott W.L., Resistance training is medicine: Effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2012, 11 (4), 209-216, doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e31825dabb8. 3. Fisher J., Steele J., Bruce-Low S., Smith D., Evidence-based resistance training recommendations. Med Sport, 2011, 15 (3

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Andrzej L. Komorowski, Jerzy W. Mituś, Miguel Angel Sanchez Hurtado and Francisco Miguel Sanchez Margallo

REFERENCES 1. Alba Mesa F, Sanchez Hurtado MA, Sanchez Margallo FM et al.: Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in Laparoscopic Colon Surgery Training. World J Surg 2015; 39: 536-42. 2. Alba Mesa F, Amaya Cortijo A, Romero Fernandez JM et al.: Totally transvaginal resection of the descending colon in an experimental model. Surg Endosc 2012; 26: 877-81. 3. Usón-Casaús J, Pérez-Merino EM, Rivera-Barreno R et al.: Evaluation of a Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia rabbit model for pediatric thoracoscopic training. J Laparoendosc