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Dubravko Habek

Primaljstvo i prve primalje u Bjelovaru 1756.-1856

Prve izučene (aprobirane) primalje dolaze u novoosnovani Bjelovar, jako vojno središte Vojne krajine početkom druge polovice XVIII. stoljeća zajedno s vojnim liječnicima, kirurzima i ljekarnicima, a većina njih je germanskoga podrijetla. U do sada neistraženom arhivskom materijalu za razdoblje 1756.-1856. pronadeni su podaci o 23 izučene primalje, od kojih je 14 bilo pukovnijskih i 9 gradskih primalja. Visok perinatalni pomor djece i majki i kriminalni pobačaji karakteristike su toga razdoblja. Uz model domicilnoga primaljstva: skrb za trudnice, rodilje, babinjače, novorodenčad i dojenčad, primalje u teškim porodima obavljaju krštenje iz nužde ugroženoj novorodenčadi ili su pak krsne kume zdravoj dojenčadi. Premda je u samom gradu Bjelovaru ustrojeno stručno primaljstvo, u okolici grada i dalje se porodi obavljaju bez stručne pomoći. Za razliku od većine tadašnjih gradova kontinentalne Hrvatske, pa i Dalmacije, u Bjelovaru postoji kontinuirano izučeno primaljstvo i zaštita materinstva od polovice XVIII. stoljeća.

Open access

Wioletta Kamińska and Mirosław Mularczyk

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.

Open access

Maurycy Kustra

Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of shaping landscape. The examples of towns of Great Poland from the 13th century were implemented and used. Their layout was not accidental. Towns were created with a substantial dose of accuracy. A market square was precisely laid out; roads were turned straight to the nearby towns, and plots were created for townsmen. It tended to be the final product of human thought and idea. The comparison of towns’ sizes shows that the same measures and similar schemes were used. In a medieval town each and every aspect was carefully planned and wellthought- out, but sometimes it was modified due to the terrain. Subsequent generations interpreted landscape on their own and occasionally changed the layout of a town. The contemporary appearance of towns is a product of thought materialisation in the living space. That is why the landscape of towns can be analysed and read.

Open access

Alena Kononowicz

Abstract

Leśnica, today the settlement on the western edge of Wrocław, formerly was an independent town, located on a previously wooded area, with a linear street system. It developed in the Middle Ages around the castle and church playing a service role for the Silesian Piast court on their way to Legnica and during hunting. In the thirteenth century it received city rights, and lost them in the eighteenth century. After the Piast dynasty had died out, it was sold by John of Luxembourg, and repeatedly changed its owners. In the nineteenth century it developed thanks to the industry, tourism and a convenient railway connection to Wrocław as well as hotel and restaurant facilities. In 1928, Leśnica was incorporated into Wrocław. After the Second World War, it lost its cultural continuity. In the 1970's, middle-heigh and high prefabricated buildings were built in the vicinity of a residential district. At the end of the twentieth and early twenty-first century, local industries were liquidated, and intensive land development started, causing the systematic blurring of its small-town character and its urban space started to acquire a character of a big city. In 2004, the old part of Leśnica was entered in the Register of Monuments. Also a ring road was planned, moving the cumbersome and dangerous transit traffic away from historic Średzka Street beyond the southern border of the settlement.

Open access

Radovan Madleňák and Lucia Madleňáková

Abstract

The Internet and information and communication technologies (ICT) have changed everything: news, commerce, advertising, relating to others, getting information and transport too. It has changed how the people work, how they practice religion, how they date, how they spend the free time and how they travel. One of the technological innovations that are based on usage ICT in advertising space is digital signage. This article presents the results of research dedicated to investigate the relationships between customers-passengers and this new ICT technology in real environment. The results of the research stimulate the discussion about the future advertising practices in Žilina town. Based on the wide analysis of opportunities the digital signage technology in advertising practices, the presented marketing research investigates how passengers accept virtual advertising technology in urban transport system of Žilina town. Authors highlight the advantages of interactivity between digital signage technology and consumers. The conclusions of this article triggers further investigations in the area of the interactions between the digital advertising technology and passengers, and the passengers’ perception and acceptation of shopping activities on the basis of advertising in digital signage medias.

Open access

Jiří Kolbek, Milan Valachovič and Katarína Mišíková

Abstract

During May, 2013, the vegetation on city walls has been studied in five old royal mining towns of Central Slovakia (Banská Belá, Banská Štiavnica, Kremnica, Nová Baňa, and Pukanec). In the four last-named towns, phytocoenological material was recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method, providing 41 relevés. Analysis of data (Twinspan , DCA) grouped the relevés into four clusters: ass. Cymbalarietum muralis, Corydalidetum luteae, Asplenietum rutae-murarie-trichomanis, and the most hemerobic community dominated by Chelidonium majus. All communities are generally rather heterogeneous, with a large range of number of species and with frequent participation of accessory plants. In the observed localities, 22 epilithic mosses and 2 liverworts were recorded: the most common species appears Encalypta streptocarpa, Homalothecium sericeum, Tortula muralis, Hypnum cupressiforme, Schistidium apocarpum agg., and Bryum caespiticium.

Open access

Regula Schmid

Abstract

The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.

Open access

Tomaž Pipan

Abstract

In the last 30 years the global supply chains and containerization transformed the world of production and stretched it across the globe. With the exodus of Process and Assembly (P&A) segment of industrial production from the developed countries, the “global north” not only lost the production capacity itself, but more importantly, the know-how in making that is a basis of industrial culture.

The neoliberal attitudes in industrial production were the main force behind slow but persistent abandonment of the automotive industry in Detroit, or closing down of the coal and iron industry in the Ruhr region in Germany. Contemporary urban renewal strategies of industrial areas rely on injection of tourism based on design, popular art, cultural and leisure activities, like the Emscher Landschaftspark in Ruhr region, Germany. However, tourism-based redevelopment is economically questionable in small industrial towns. For such areas we need to envision alternative agencies that industrial past and industrial production can offer. One of the most underrated aspects of industrial production is the know-how imbedded in the P&A segment of industrial process. We argue for the industrial production know-how as a relevant part of the new innovation economy of small towns and of the local culture. This paper will trace the capacity of industrial production for culture-making by referring to production-innovation models described in regional geography. Firstly the paper identifies the P&A know-how worth reshoring. Secondly, it describes two models of neo-industrialization in order to thirdly identify a new hybrid type of a regional model and its culture.

Open access

Sebastian Brańka, Andres Coca-Stefaniak and Jarosław Plichta

References Borkowski, K., Grabiński, T., Seweryn, R., Wilkońska, A., and Mazanek, L., 2013. Ruch turystyczny w Krakowie w 2013 roku. Raport końcowy. Kraków: Małopolska Organizacja Turystyczna. Brańka, S., 2013. Why do the university graduates settle down in the university town? Potential implications for city marketing - the case of Cracow. Zeszyty Naukowe Szkoly Glownej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie. Polityki Europejskie, Finanse i Marketing, 10(59), 87-97. Brańka, S., and Plichta, J., 2014. The role of

Open access

S.J. Sheen and B.I. Townes

Abstract

Polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis revealed at least 13 anodic protein bands in leaf extracts of seven tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) strains representing Burley, Turkish, flue- and fire-cured types. Four major bands B, E, G, and J were common in all strains. Weak bands varied slightly in mobility and in number among tobacco types. Studies of cell fractions of Burley 21 leaves yielded information that bands A, C, D, G, and J are present in the cytoplasm, whereas all but bands B, E, L, and M appeared to be identical in the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear extracts. The resemblance in protein banding pattern among the organelles indicates similarity in their membrane proteins. Bands B, E, L, and M are associated with plasma membrane or cell wall. During simulated air-curing, a majority of bands diminished by the tenth day, whereas bands B, E, and G remained highly intense and the concentration of band C was reduced in cured leaves. Bands B, E, and G reacted positively with the periodic-acid Schiff's reagent (PAS) but negatively with the colloidal ion staining. Trypsin digestion abolished protein bands stained with amido black or the PAS reagent. Results suggest that bands B, E, and G are neutral or weakly acidic glycoproteins