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Open access

Augustyn Bańka and Karol Orłowski

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present study results concerning the structure of teacher Machiavellianism. Machiavellianism was researched extensively throughout the last 40 years as a personality feature comprising traits related to leadership manipulation tactics. Psychology describes Machiavellianism as a part of the universal model called “the dark triad of personality” alongside with subclinical narcissism, subclinical psychopathy and low empathy. The teacher Machiavellianism model presented in this article, as opposed to the universal models, strongly accentuates the context-specific variables related to the organization of life in a school, alongside with personality variables. To achieve a new insight into the mechanism of how teacher Machiavellianism is generated, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used, which incorporates personality variables such as: self-effi cacy, disposition for gratitude, values, one’s personal resources, professional burnout, alongside context-specific variables like: organizational culture, work attitude, tenure and specialization in the tasks performed. Results of two studies are shown, discussing the empirical structure of teacher Machiavellianism components in relation to the initial theoretical model.

Open access

Lucy Simko, Luke Zettlemoyer and Tadayoshi Kohno

Abstract

Source code attribution classifiers have recently become powerful. We consider the possibility that an adversary could craft code with the intention of causing a misclassification, i.e., creating a forgery of another author’s programming style in order to hide the forger’s own identity or blame the other author. We find that it is possible for a non-expert adversary to defeat such a system. In order to inform the design of adversarially resistant source code attribution classifiers, we conduct two studies with C/C++ programmers to explore the potential tactics and capabilities both of such adversaries and, conversely, of human analysts doing source code authorship attribution. Through the quantitative and qualitative analysis of these studies, we (1) evaluate a state-of-the-art machine classifier against forgeries, (2) evaluate programmers as human analysts/forgery detectors, and (3) compile a set of modifications made to create forgeries. Based on our analyses, we then suggest features that future source code attribution systems might incorporate in order to be adversarially resistant.

Open access

Olena Semenog

Abstract

On the example of propaedeutic educational course “Introduction to Slavic Philology” features of future teachers’ professional training of cross-cultural dialogue are considered. Among the main objectives of the course, attention is focused on native language and other languages admirer’s tolerance education, students’ skills formation of making linguistic and cultural comments on folklore, literary texts and discourses; building a strategy and tactics of intercultural communication in accordance to national psychology.

The examples of tokens, “ukrainisms” in Slavic languages and phrases are presented; also, it is considered Slavists as tolerant intermediaries towards intercultural cooperation of countries and peoples, the need for skills of translation activity that caused the crosscultural dialogue.

Based on scientific and encyclopedic sources analysis, educational course testing is making conclusion that Slavic philology is a powerful tool for cross-cultural dialogue. It contains of big factual material that promotes understanding the process of formation and development of ethno-cultural communities in time and space, formation of human values and national identity of supranational cross-cultural thought, ways of tolerant behavior, language understanding and usage. Also it creates conditions for the realization of individuality as Ukrainian language and other languages, cultures, intellectual and emotional contacts between these languages and cultures.

Open access

Miluše Hrnčiříková

Summary

The growth in the amount of international arbitrations, the value of the disputes and expenses invested into the arbitral proceedings have escalated the pressure to succeed in dispute. The arbitrators face to guerrilla tactics or threats of annulment of arbitral awards based on the violation of a right to a due process. Soft law regulating the arbitral procedure endowers the effectives of the arbitration, however, in the recent years the critical voices can be heart which warn against overregulation and its judicialization. On the following pages the impact of the soft rules prescribing the arbitral proceeding on the effectiveness of the international commercial arbitration is examined. Firstly the author deals with the right to a fair trial and the discretionary power of arbitrators in the framework of the notion of soft law and then the binding character of this soft law is determined. The aim of this article is to answer the question whether the regulation of the arbitral proceedings by soft law is still welcomed or if it represents a threat for the discretionary powers of the arbitrator and arbitration as such.

Open access

Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Adam Kantanista, Monika Ciekot, Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska and Szymon Szwed

Health-related intensity profiles of Physical Education classes at different phases of the teaching/learning process

Study aim: To assess the intensities of three types of physical education (PE) classes corresponding to the phases of the teaching/learning process: Type 1 - acquiring and developing skills, Type 2 - selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional principles and Type 3 - evaluating and improving performance skills.

Material and methods: A cohort of 350 schoolchildren, aged 13 years, from 3 selected urban schools in Poznań participated in the study. A total of 202 PE lessons was involved using heart rate (HR) monitors, one randomly selected subject per every class. Four intensity zones were assumed (<140, 140 - 159, 160 - 179, ≥180) and exercising time spent within each zone was measured.

Results: Type 2 classes induced the most pronounced cardio-respiratory responses irrespectively of the kind of sport activities thus enhancing the cardio-respiratory fitness.

Conclusions: Type 2 activities ought to be taken into consideration when designing PE curricula in order to avoid long runs of inadequate physiological stimuli.

Open access

Samuel Keith Duncan

Abstract

No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL) into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.

Open access

Liliya Satalkina and Nestor Shpak

Abstract

Background: Nowadays the emphasis on social components in the general mainstream of innovation activity is one of the strongest grounds for the successful functioning and development of enterprises. In several countries, social innovation activity is becoming a product of business in general, with associated expectations regarding profit.

Objectives: The goal of the article is to develop a toolkit for the evaluation of the influence of the macro-environment on the social innovation activity (SIA) of enterprises.

Method: The methodology includes elements of theoretical and empirical research with the implementation of methods such as a literature review, all types of analysis, and methods of aggregation and integration. Questionnaires were used as a means of data collection.

Results: The general methodological framework of diagnostics of the SIA macro-environment is distinguished. Based on a theoretical analysis of the SIA ecosystem and the experience of operating enterprises, the main factors of SIA macro-environment are determined. The general integrated index and its five-level interpretational model are proposed as a measure for the evaluation of the SIA macro-environment.

Conclusion: The results presented provide data necessary for the argumentation of SIA strategy and tactics, as well as investment policy in this sphere.

Open access

Elfrida Manoku and Mimoza Kalia

Abstract

After the late 1970s the marketing discipline has known a considerable expansion and application not only in private sector but also in public or non-profit sector. Currently the debate is focused on how to better integrate the marketing concept and marketing function into the activities of government organizations as means of increasing the effectiveness of the delivery of public policy and citizens satisfaction. Public marketing is a new concept for the Albanian reality and very slowly is entering into the management approach. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how much is known and accepted the concept of marketing in the Albanian public sector and if this level of acceptance or rejection is reflected in the use of marketing strategies and tactics as instruments of public management.

After a critical review of the literature about the last trends and research in this issue, qualitative methods are used through a case study in General Directorate of Taxation in Albania. In depth semi-structured interviews with several senior directors and officers were conducted to see the level of perceptions and practices thorough the major departments of this Institution. From the analysis of data gathered resulted that marketing is mostly equated with public relations function and was considered unnecessary and as a significant consumer of public funds. A number of recommendations are given on how to build an efficient marketing model for the General Directorate of Taxation in order to help increasing efficiency and quality of service to citizens.

Open access

Mikhail Mikhaylovskiy, Vyacheslav Stupak, Vadim Belozerov, Nikolay Fomichev, Anatoliy Lutsik, Leonid Afanasyev, Anatoliy Bondarenko, Alexandr Krutko, Dmitriy Dolzhenko, Alla Zaidman, Valeriy Larkin, Andrey Narodov, Alexander Novokshonov, Samuil Rabinovich, Victor Rerikh, Valeriy Prokhorenko, Olga Falameeva, Vladimir Shevtsov and Mikhail Sadovoy

Abstract

Background: The rate of scoliosis in syringomyelia patients ranges from 25 to 74.4%. In turn, syringomyelia occurs in 1.2% to 9.7% of scoliosis patients.

Aim: To evaluate outcomes of surgical correction of the scoliotic deformity in syringomyelia patients.

Materials and methods: Between 1996 and 2015, 3120 patients with scoliosis of various etiologies were treated at the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Vertebrology of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. We conducted a retrospective analysis of syringomyelia-associated scoliosis cases that required surgical correction.

Results: Syringomyelia was found in 33 patients (1.05%) out of 3120 patients with spinal deformities of various etiologies; in 21 patients (0.9%) with idiopathic scoliosis of 2334 patients. In identifying the neurological deficit, the recommended first step is to perform neurosurgery. Nineteen patients were operated using the CDI, 4 patients underwent correction VEPTR, in 1 case instrumentation could not be established, 9 patients are undergoing treatment in the department of neurosurgery at the moment. Worsening of neurological deficits was not observed in any patient.

Conclusion: A comparison of the results of syringomyelia-associated scoliosis correction with the data of other authors was done. The choice of surgery tactics is strictly individual and depends on the size of the cavity. The result of surgical intervention is generally positive and the loss of correction by the end of follow-up is negligible.

Open access

Jerzy Kosiewicz

Abstract

A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological). This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.

Generally, the theory of aleatorism has been applied in analyzing the phenomena of physics, music, and theatrical spectacle.

The one relatively well-developed theory of performance is that of theatre spectacle. The above does not mean that the author aims to appreciate a sporting performance due to its links with theatre. He points to one of many possible aspects of a sporting spectacle, which are the assumptions of an aleatory nature included in its structure, plan, and the tactics of the game.