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Open access

Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Adam Kantanista, Monika Ciekot, Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska and Szymon Szwed

Health-related intensity profiles of Physical Education classes at different phases of the teaching/learning process

Study aim: To assess the intensities of three types of physical education (PE) classes corresponding to the phases of the teaching/learning process: Type 1 - acquiring and developing skills, Type 2 - selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional principles and Type 3 - evaluating and improving performance skills.

Material and methods: A cohort of 350 schoolchildren, aged 13 years, from 3 selected urban schools in Poznań participated in the study. A total of 202 PE lessons was involved using heart rate (HR) monitors, one randomly selected subject per every class. Four intensity zones were assumed (<140, 140 - 159, 160 - 179, ≥180) and exercising time spent within each zone was measured.

Results: Type 2 classes induced the most pronounced cardio-respiratory responses irrespectively of the kind of sport activities thus enhancing the cardio-respiratory fitness.

Conclusions: Type 2 activities ought to be taken into consideration when designing PE curricula in order to avoid long runs of inadequate physiological stimuli.

Open access

Dominique Hanssens

Abstract

While some marketing tactics such as price promotions have mostly short-term effects, others such as advertising have both a short- and a long-term impact. A short-term focus in advertising measurement may bias return-on-investment calculations because it takes into account the complete expenditure for advertising but only a portion of its impact. Therefore it is necessary to assess advertising’s long-term impact on top of its short-term effects. Sustained advertising effect arises from consumer response in terms of carry-over effects or purchase reinforcement like repeat buying or word of mouth. It also depends on corporate behavior like a company’s ability to learn from past experiences. A precondition to leveraging optimal short- and longterm advertising effects is to monitor success and infer theright action. The improvement in an organization’s marketing processes and behaviors can result in an impact that is over five times stronger and longer lasting. To produce such results, the organization must use consumer response metrics to advertising that are predictive of transactional and financial returns, spend on activities that create the short-term effects necessary for long-term build-up, repeat successful behavior and turn this feedback loop into better business practices and improved process management for both the brand and for the company as a whole.

Open access

Doru Șupeală

Abstract

In the context of a highly dynamic labour market, with the entry of the Y and Z generations in the active workforce and the shift of power balance from employers to employees, the corporate employer brand becomes a strategic element and part of the non-material capital that each company can use to attract and retain top talents and, consequently, to get business performance. This paper proposes a modern vision of leadership and talent management, in which collaboration, empathy, democratization of decisions, development of emotional connections and increasing the level of freedom for employees contribute to building an effective, attractive and sustainable Employer Value Proposition. By integrating Human Resources and Marketing management principles, objectives, activities and tactics, companies should focus on authenticity in their communications, in order to win employees’ minds and hearts in the contemporary very intense competition for talents. We suggest updating the traditional Marketing Mix to 15 elements, in order to support Employer Branding Strategies and to reach the Employer of Choice status. The essential objective is the development of a deep relationship between employees and companies, in the form of a transaction with dual value, financial and emotional at the same time. Loyalty is seen as superior and consecutive to solidly applied retention, adding emotional value to the material benefits offered by the companies to their employees.

Open access

Jevgeņijs Stepanovs, Agnese Ozoliņa, Vita Rovīte, Biruta Mamaja and Indulis Vanags

Abstract

Microvascular free flap surgery, has become an important part of reconstructive surgery during the last decades, as it allows closure of various tissue defects and recovery of organs function. Despite surgical progress resulting in high rates of transferred tissue survival, the risk of pedicle vessels thrombosis still remains a significant problem. A total of 108 articles from Pubmed and Science Direct databases published in 2005–2015 were analysed. This review of the literature assessed the influence of patient-dependent risk factors and different perioperative management strategies on development of microvascular free flap thrombosis. Sufficient evidence for risk associated with hypercoagulation, advanced age and certain comorbidities was identified. Presently, rotational thromboelastometry allows early hypercoagulability detection, significantly changing further patient management. Identification of flap thrombosis promoting surgery-related aspects is also essential in preoperative settings. Choice of anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia, administration of different types and amounts of fluids, blood products and vasoactive agents, temperature control are no less important in perioperative anaesthesiological management. More attention should be focused on timely preoperative evaluation of patient-dependent risk factors, which can influence anaesthesiological and surgical tactics during and after microvascular free flap surgery. Perioperative anaesthesiological management strategy continues to be controversial and therefore it should be performed based on thrombotic risk assessment and patient individual needs, thus improving flap survival rates and surgical outcome.

Open access

Virgilijus Pugačiauskas

Abstract

One of the distinctive features of Russia’s confrontation with the West over the 2014-2016 period is the intensification of Russian propaganda both in foreign countries and within the state. Lithuania, whose relations with a major neighbour were not normalized, and which openly supported Ukraine’s position, attracted the additional attention of Russian mass media in which an incitement to anti- Lithuanian moods was bolstered. In this case, it is endeavoured to generally describe how the mass media (television and newspapers) played a role in contriving a social construct and ascertain the Lithuanian quantitative characteristics which are presented in Russian mass media. Referring to the analysis, one can distinguish three prevailing negative images of Lithuania - that is, Russophobic and anti-Russian; a falsifier of history; and a failing and non-influential state. These images, being consistently and purposefully exploited in Russian information space, almost with no alternative sources, turned into undeniable truth for the majority of Russian citizens. This provides the Kremlin with vast possibilities of manipulation in constructing the tactics and strategy of geopolitical instability. On the other hand, one should not forget that such a negative picture of Lithuania serves as a way in which Russian society justifies Putin’s political system and demonstrates its superiority over the values of the Western world.

Open access

Zoltán Szenek and Zsolt Végvári

Abstract

We investigated relationships among bustard presence data as response as well as properties of habitat patches such as shape, size, type of land use and landscape connectivity in 2015, employing bustard occurrence data in Körös-Maros National Park (KMNP hereafter). Additionally, we aimed to present a geometrical approach of habitat choice in animals, focusing on geometric properties rather than vegetation structure. Here we applied landscape metrics approach, providing landscape classification by analysing spatial patterns in potentially important landscape objects, disregarding linear constructions. Our findings show insignificant differences between shape metrics of selected and non-selected habitat patches, in line with previous studies concluding that bustards choose habitats based on habitat type classes rather than on geometric properties. Further, our results indicate that the original habitats of the study species, adapted to extensive, open steppes, became strongly fragmented, resulting in the absence of large contiguous areas. Within the study area, landscape connectivity values represent optimal habitat conditions, probably as a result of highly patchy structure of the landscape and relatively small nearest neighbour distances of habitat patches. Thus, our findings also indicate that Great Bustards adapted to modified landscape structures. Our landscape analytical approach provides a methodological framework which can be applied on habitat selection tactics in a number of species of key conservation importance.

Open access

Jerzy Kosiewicz

Abstract

A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological). This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.

Generally, the theory of aleatorism has been applied in analyzing the phenomena of physics, music, and theatrical spectacle.

The one relatively well-developed theory of performance is that of theatre spectacle. The above does not mean that the author aims to appreciate a sporting performance due to its links with theatre. He points to one of many possible aspects of a sporting spectacle, which are the assumptions of an aleatory nature included in its structure, plan, and the tactics of the game.

Open access

Olena Semenog

Abstract

On the example of propaedeutic educational course “Introduction to Slavic Philology” features of future teachers’ professional training of cross-cultural dialogue are considered. Among the main objectives of the course, attention is focused on native language and other languages admirer’s tolerance education, students’ skills formation of making linguistic and cultural comments on folklore, literary texts and discourses; building a strategy and tactics of intercultural communication in accordance to national psychology.

The examples of tokens, “ukrainisms” in Slavic languages and phrases are presented; also, it is considered Slavists as tolerant intermediaries towards intercultural cooperation of countries and peoples, the need for skills of translation activity that caused the crosscultural dialogue.

Based on scientific and encyclopedic sources analysis, educational course testing is making conclusion that Slavic philology is a powerful tool for cross-cultural dialogue. It contains of big factual material that promotes understanding the process of formation and development of ethno-cultural communities in time and space, formation of human values and national identity of supranational cross-cultural thought, ways of tolerant behavior, language understanding and usage. Also it creates conditions for the realization of individuality as Ukrainian language and other languages, cultures, intellectual and emotional contacts between these languages and cultures.

Open access

Mikhail Mikhaylovskiy, Vyacheslav Stupak, Vadim Belozerov, Nikolay Fomichev, Anatoliy Lutsik, Leonid Afanasyev, Anatoliy Bondarenko, Alexandr Krutko, Dmitriy Dolzhenko, Alla Zaidman, Valeriy Larkin, Andrey Narodov, Alexander Novokshonov, Samuil Rabinovich, Victor Rerikh, Valeriy Prokhorenko, Olga Falameeva, Vladimir Shevtsov and Mikhail Sadovoy

Abstract

Background: The rate of scoliosis in syringomyelia patients ranges from 25 to 74.4%. In turn, syringomyelia occurs in 1.2% to 9.7% of scoliosis patients.

Aim: To evaluate outcomes of surgical correction of the scoliotic deformity in syringomyelia patients.

Materials and methods: Between 1996 and 2015, 3120 patients with scoliosis of various etiologies were treated at the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Vertebrology of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. We conducted a retrospective analysis of syringomyelia-associated scoliosis cases that required surgical correction.

Results: Syringomyelia was found in 33 patients (1.05%) out of 3120 patients with spinal deformities of various etiologies; in 21 patients (0.9%) with idiopathic scoliosis of 2334 patients. In identifying the neurological deficit, the recommended first step is to perform neurosurgery. Nineteen patients were operated using the CDI, 4 patients underwent correction VEPTR, in 1 case instrumentation could not be established, 9 patients are undergoing treatment in the department of neurosurgery at the moment. Worsening of neurological deficits was not observed in any patient.

Conclusion: A comparison of the results of syringomyelia-associated scoliosis correction with the data of other authors was done. The choice of surgery tactics is strictly individual and depends on the size of the cavity. The result of surgical intervention is generally positive and the loss of correction by the end of follow-up is negligible.

Open access

Samuel Keith Duncan

Abstract

No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL) into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.