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Jaan Silvet


Exposing organisms to aversive events which they cannot control might result in motivational, cognitive, emotional, and self-esteem deficits. These deficits are called symptoms of helplessness and are the core part of learned helplessness theory. Many studies have empirically analysed the theory on the individual level. The current study focuses on the learned helplessness in the context of organisational change. The object of the study is one media company in Estonia, which conducted a large restructuring during the 2008 economic crisis. The result shows that there exists an organisational gap when it comes to the estimates of top management and employees. The key to the problem appeared to be the middle management, who were unable to effectively manage their subordinates as they were busy themselves coping with the change.

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Means of Communication

Transnational Struggles and Scarce Resources

Thomas Hylland Eriksen

. S. Vertovec and R. Cohen, pp. 86-109. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Castells, Manuel (1996) The Rise of the Network Society . Oxford: Blackwell. Castells, Manuel (1998) End of Millennium . Oxford: Blackwell. Castles, Stephen and Alasdair Davidson (2000) Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and the Politics of Belonging . London: Palgrave Macmillan. Cohen, A.P. (1994) Self Consciousness . London: Routledge. Douglas, Mary (1966) Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of

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Leyla Tavacioglu, Kaan Kora, Erkut Atilgan and Canan Savran

Assessment of Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Elite Dancers in Turkey

In this study, a descriptive method was used in order to assess the demographic and personality characteristics of athletes in dancing sports.

Data collected with ACL scale were evaluated with a computer programme and subscale scores were obtained. Five subscale categories which have the highest mean scores among all, were decided as typical characteristics of the athletes. The distributions of subscale scores according to demographic variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation test. In all analysis, results were tested two-sided and level of significance was accepted as 0.05.

Preponderance over others, decisiveness, high self-esteem, masculine behavior were found significantly higher in younger athletes compared to old ones. On the other hand, acceptance of psychological consultation was found to be significantly higher among old athletes.

Open access

Olena Bordakova


Choice of profession is a long process that begins in early childhood and usually lasts for the whole life. That’s why it is so important to build a solid vocational guidance school system that will help students to make weighted decisions about their professional future. This system should perform the following functions: engage students in active selfawareness and self-esteem; change student’s self-appraisal if it’s different from his/her actual capabilities (too high or too low); help students to deepen their knowledge about professions that are interesting to them; teach students to compare their state of health with the demands of a chosen profession; acquaint them with the structure of education; collaborate with their parents. The result of its work is prepared, motivated, active and enterprising young people who know how to take initiative in finding job; adapt acquired professional skills to the needs of the labor market; acquire new skills in difficult situations such as unemployment, new working environment, retraining; be free moving in the new realities of free-market economy; use the art of self-presentation; prepare application documents; use computer and serf on the web. So, the successful choice of future professional life depends on the decision of a gymnasium graduate about his/her further direction of education. And the factor of this successful choice is the knowledge obtained by pupils about themselves, the world of professions, directions of further study in the conditions of lifelong learning program.

Open access

Katarzyna Szczekala, Katarzyna Kanadys, Krzysztof Wiktor and Henryk Wiktor

, Bolman C, Oenema A, et al. Motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention with an avatar: Randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(2). e48. 24. Mahmoodabad SSM, Tonekaboni NR, Farmanbar R, et al. The effect of motivational interviewing-based intervention using self-determination theory on promotion of physical activity among women in reproductive age: A randomized clinical trial. Electron Physician. 2017;9(5):4461-72. 25. Ball K, Hunter RF, Maple JL, et al. Can an incentive-based intervention increase physical

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Urszula Kizelbach

, 2011. Print. Chernaik, Warren. The Cambridge Introduction to Shakespeare’s History Plays . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. Clemen, Wolfgang. A Commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . Trans. Jean Bohheim. London: Methuen, 1968. Print. Greenblatt, Stephen. Renaissance Self-fashioning . From More to Shakespeare . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1984. Print. ---. “Richard III.” The Norton Shakespeare . Based on the Oxford Edition: Histories . New York: Norton, 1997. 319-26. Print

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Iwona Piotrowska, Małgorzata Cichoń, Dawid Abramowicz and Jakub ypniewski

. Tapscott D., 2009. Cyfrowa dorosłość. Jak pokolenie sieci zmienia nasz świat . Online: (accessed 28 October 2011). Trna J., Trnová E., 2012. Inquiry-based Science Education Experiments. In: C. Bolte, J. Holbrook, F. Rauch (eds.), Inquiry-based Science Education in Europe: Reflections from the PROFILES Project. Berlin: Freie Universitat Berlin. Van Uum M., Verhoeff R.P. & Peters M., 2017. Inquiry-based science education: scaffolding pupils self-directed learning in open inquiry. International Journal of Science

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Margarita Kaltigina

Mother Tongue Textbooks and the Possibilities of Creativity Development through Their Use in Mother Tongue Lessons in Early Primary School

Introduction Creativity as one of the most desired contemporary human qualities is closely related to self-expression, but self-expression to self-assessment, self-esteem, and further to self-actualisation. Therefore the early primary school stage becomes especially crucial which involves the development of creative abilities as one of the most fundamental tasks. The article focuses on the early primary text-books in the mother tongue (Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian) in order to clarify to what extent and exactly what kind of creativity promoting tasks the authors include in them.

Aim of the study The aim is to analyse the mother tongue early primary school text-books of various nationalities in order to establish the number and type of the tasks promoting children's creativity.

Materials and methods Analysis of theoretical literature and the tasks provided by the text-books, a survey of children.

Results Mother tongue early primary school text-books, including Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Polish, Ukrainian and Russian by various authors, were analysed for in accordance with their rating for tasks which foster creativity. The pupils were surveyed about the assigned tasks, and the attitudes of different authors for opportunities of fostering creativity in mother tongue lessons were assessed.

Conclusions In the early primary school stage it is significant to foster children's creativity during mother tongue lessons as such tasks in opposition to boring and monotonous) are fulfilled with greater enthusiasm and pleasure, so they foster self-assessment, development of positive relationships, and faster achievement of teaching/ learning aims.

Some tasks fostering children's creativity are included in mother tongue early primary school text-books of different nationalities. Nevertheless we have to conclude that some authors pay more attention to them than others. Consequently, text-books do not fulfil their function as an idea bank for the teacher, and the teachers have to make great effort to develop creative, exciting and joyful educational experiences.

Open access

Małgorzata Cichoń and Iwona Piotrowska


Young people, regardless of their social environment, place of residence or work, are looking for values and key competencies that enable achieving goals in life. Therefore, an appropriate education system is important, which in the conditions of changing reality will meet these requirements effectively. The contemporary employer is interested in four groups of key competencies, such as intellectual, professional, personal and interpersonal. Geography is a field with great potential for the development of various competencies. In this context, questions about adjusting geographical education to the expectations of employers are justified. Therefore, the aim of the study is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the current development of competencies and qualifications at the geography speciality of the Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. The reference points included a report on research carried out among 200 employers in 2012, as well as surveys among students graduating from master‘s studies on the assessment of the level of their competencies and qualifications. It was determined that the strength of the current geographical education at the faculty is to prepare mainly specialists with broad general and professional knowledge, and high self-esteem in terms of cooperation in the group and communication. The area of development for the geographical education are intellectual competencies, above all independent thinking and prioritising. The last year geography students fall out the most in terms of personal competencies. The authors suggest building students‘ awareness because, as the above results show, they are not fully aware of what expectations they may face in the labour market. It is worth modifying the study program so as to put more emphasis on soft competencies and support the development of various forms of extra activities of students. Attention was also paid to the importance of didactic competencies, which on the one hand raise the self-esteem of students, and on the other, increase the chance of finding a good job. An interesting aspect of the research is the wide spectrum of professions in which students work. This reflects their diverse skills, including spatial thinking. Combined with increasing attention paid to the issues related to the natural environment and sustainable development, graduates of geography have a strong position to enter the current labour market. The advantage of geographers is the use of modern technologies. Unfortunately, however, the results of the research presented above, both among Polish students and internationally, indicate insufficient skills in the use of modern technologies by students of geography.

Open access

Elwira Brygoła

experiences. Journal of Research in Personality , 38, 280-316. DeMello, L. R. & Imms, T. (1999). Self-esteem, locus of control and coping styles and their relationship to school attitudes of adolescents. Psychological Studies , 44, 24-34. Duval, T. S. & Silvia P. J. (2002). Self-awareness, probability of improvement, and the self-serving bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 82, 49-61. Epstein, S. (1991). Cognitive-experiential self-theory: An integrative theory of personality