Li-jun Peng, Jin-sheng Guo, Zhe Zhang, Li-li Liu, Yi-rong Cao, Hong Shi, Jian Wang, Scott L. Friedman, John J. Sninsky and Ji-yao Wang
1 Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolon P. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups. Lancet 1997;349:825-832.
2 Powell EE, Edwards-Smith CJ, Hay JL, Clouston AD, Crawford DH, Shorthouse C, et al. Host genetic factors influence disease progression in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2000;31:828-833.
3 Day CP. Genetic studies to identify hepatic fibrosis genes and SNPs i n human populations. Methods Mol Med 2005
China has pursued a sustainable path of development in line with reality for four decades. Economic restructuring started in its vast rural areas, focusing on reforms targeting income increase for rural farmers. These radical sustainable policies that China’s political leaders imbibed were not embraced by Nigeria’s past leaders and these resulted in the bane of underdevelopment. The study examines the level and composition of the drivers of public-spending policy mechanisms that contribute to gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the agricultural sector in China and Nigeria and draws up a model of Chinese development for Nigeria. Secondary data was used and were sourced from FAOSTAT and International Monetary Fund’s Government-Finance Statistics (various issues) from 1970–2016. Random-effects model results revealed that the policy of public-expenditure (PUEXP) and intervention (INTEV) variables were significant but negative, while enterprise-development (ENTDEV), drivers of development (DRIVERS) and Dummy D1t (modest public-expenditure access) were significant and positive for Nigeria. Three variables were significant and positive. The dummies D1t and D2t (macro-economic stability) were positive and significant for China. Public-expenditure and GDP growth has an inverse relationship in Nigeria, but a direct relationship in China. In Nigeria, PUEXP coefficient is ˗0.6810 and 0.8902 for China. Hence, macro-economic stability, enhanced market mechanisms and economic progress resulted in China and hereby lessons are drawn for Nigeria. Public leaders are responsible for governing the market in a manner that induces businesses to produce public value. However, if public-policy mechanisms are not well-designed to fit the economy’s needs it could significantly influence the economy in a negative way, and the society bears the costs.
Velibor Tasic, Aleksandra Janchevska, Nora Emini, Emilija Sahpazova, Zoran Gucev and Momir Polenakovic
of adult blood pressure. Hypertension. 1998; 31: 145–50.
9. Flynn JT, Ng DK, Chan GJ, Samuels J, Furth S, Warady B, Greenbaum LA; Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study. The effect of abnormal birth history on ambulatory blood pressure and disease progression in children with chronic kidney disease. J Pediatr. 2014; 165(1): 154–162.
10. Lurbe E, Torro I, Rodriguez C, Alvarez V, Redon J. Birth weight influences blood pressure values and variability in children and adolescents. Hypertension. 2001; 38: 389–393.
11. Bayrakci US, Schaefer F, Duzova A
Mirjana Paravina, Predrag Cvetanović, Miloš Kostov, Slađana Živković, Ivana Dimovski and Marina Jovanović
Keratosis lichenoides chronica represents a distinct entity, a rare disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, with clinical manifestations which, although typical, require extensive differential diagnosis. The course of the disease is chronic, progressive, and it is resistant to various treatment options, so despite variations in the clinical picture it is really easier to diagnose than to treat. This is a case report of a male patient in whom the diagnosis of keratosis lichenoides chronica was based on typical clinical picture, repeated biopsies and histopathological findings, course of the disease and poor response to any therapy.
Kristina Kostić, Miroslav Dinić, Željko Mijušković, Lidija Zolotarevski, Lidija Kandolf-Sekulović and Radoš Zečević
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystemic disease that usually affects the skin, nervous system and bones. Diagnosis is made by matching at least two of the following 7 diagnostic criteria: six or more caféau- lait macules over 15 mm in diameter, two or more neurofibromas, axillary and/or inguinal freckles, optic glioma, two or more Lisch’s nodules (iris hamartoma), changes in the bones in the form of sphenoid dysplasia, thinning of the cortex of long bones and existence of neurofibromatosis in the first degree relatives. We report three patients, two men and a woman aged 18 to 33 years, in whom the first changes occurred at puberty, and there was no positive family history in any of them. All three patients had café-au-lait spots over 15 mm in diameter and numerous localized neurofibromas on the skin of the trunk and extremities that were histologically verified. In two patients, ophthalmic examinations recorded Lisch’s nodules in the iris. In one of the patients, MRI of the head, revealed presence of oval lesions with diameters of 10-15 mm, which may correspond to neurofibromas, and in the other patient fibrous dysplasia of the femur and tibia were observed. Psychological testing in one patient revealed IQ at the lower limits of average (IQ 68). After the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type I, the patients were given advice about the disease and a plan for the monitoring and control of possible symptoms, and also the possibility of genetic testing during pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach is required for diagnosing and monitoring of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis is an idiosyncratic drug reaction which manifests with extensive epidermal detachment due to the massive keratinocyte apoptosis, mucous membrane involvement, and potentially lethal outcome. It is caused by adverse reactions to drugs, mostly idiosyncratic, unpredictable and independent of the applied dose, which develops 7-21 days after initiation of the drug, and is most commonly caused by the following drugs: sulfonamides, allopurinol, carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and oxycam group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The treatment outcome depends on several factors, while older age, multiple drug use, late exclusion of the drug inducing toxic epidermal necrolysis, raised serum levels of urea, creatinine and cytopenia are poor prognostic indicators which are rated in SCORTEN scoring which proved to be of great help in the assessment of disease outcome. The basic approach to the treatment is early diagnosis, immediate suspension of the probable inducing drug, and emergency transport to the closest burn center, since treatment in burn units is associated with a lower risk of infection and mortality of these patients. Exclusion of the drug that induced toxic epidermal necrolysis, and supportive therapy, is the first and only therapy for which there is a consensus in different centers. Various forms of adjuvant therapy are also applied: in France, supportive therapy is a standard of care, in Germany it is short-term use of high-dose corticosteroids, while in USA, in the last decade high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins are the most widely accepted treatment modalities. Case reports and small patients’ series described therapeutic effects of plasmapheresis, cyclosporine and other immunosuppressants. In conclusion, elimination of the possible causal agent, rapid transport to the burn unit, and multidisciplinary approach to treatment are of utmost importance for favorable outcome of the disease with 20-30% mortality rate. An update on diagnosis and the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis is provided in this review.
highlighted in iRECIST regarding pseudoprogression. Worsening of clinical and performance status (PS) should not be accompanied with pseudoprogression since it most probably reflects the true progression of the malignancy. 7
Here we present the single institution experience of symptomatic pseudoprogression after one application of anti PD-L1 therapy in a patient with metastatic NSCLC followed by dramatic treatment response to immunotherapy and report on the review of symptomatic pseudoprogressions from literature.
A systematic review of the literature was
Gordana D. Radosavljevic, Jelena Pantic, Ivan Jovanovic, Miodrag L. Lukic and Nebojsa Arsenijevic
1. Liu FT, Rabinovich GA. (2005). Galectins as modulators of tumour progression. Nat Rev Cancer, 5(1), 29-41.
2. Radosavljevic G, Volarevic V, Jovanovic I, Milovanovic M, Pejnovic N, Arsenijevic N, et al. (2012). The roles of Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and tumor progression. Immunol Res, 52,100–110.
3. Moutsatsos IK, Wade M, Schindler M, Wang JL. (1987). Endogenous lectins from cultured cells: nuclear localization of carbohydrate binding protein 35 in proliferating 3T3 fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 84, 6452–6456.
4. Yu F
Andreea Dragomir, Emila Rusu, Mihaela Posea and Gabriela Radulian
acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106: 2747-2757, 2002.
20. Harris WS, Miller M, Tighe AP, Davidson MH, Schaefer EJ. Omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk: clinical and mechanistic perspectives. Atherosclerosis 197: 12-24, 2008.
21. Dragomir A, Radulian G, Rusu E. The impact of one year administration of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxidative stress and atherosclerosis progression in metabolic syndrome patients. Obesity Reviews 11: 276, 2010 (Abstract).
22. Dragomir AD, Radulian G, Rusu E et al. Effects of
Manal M. Alkady, Phebe L. Abdel-Messeih and Neveen M. Nosseir
6. Tulubas F, Mete R, Oznur M, Topcu B. The role of adipo - cytokines in colon cancer and adenomas. J Med Bio - chem 2014; 33: 136-42.
7. Arner E, Forrest AR, Ehrlund A, Mejhert N, Itoh M, Ka - waji H, Lassmann T, Laurencikiene J, Rydén M, Arner P. Ceruloplasmin is a novel adipokine which is over - expressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects and in obesity-associated cancer cells. PLoS ONE 2014; 27, 9(3): e80274.
8. Park J, Morley TS, Kim M, Clegg DJ, Scherer PE. Obesity and cancer mechanisms underlying tumour progression and