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The Disciplinary Liability of Lithuanian Lawyers: a Comparative Approach

. Official Gazette, 2002, no. 53-2042. 36. Law on Courts of the Republic of Lithuania. Official Gazette, 1994, no. 46-851; 2002, no. 17-649; 2008, No. 81-3186. 37. Law on the Bar of the Republic of Lithuania. Official Gazette, 2004, no. 50-1632. 38. Law on the Notarial Profession of the Republic of Lithuania. Lithuanian Aidas, 1992, no. 28-810. 39. Law on the Public Prosecutor‘s Office. Official Gazette, 1994, no. 81-1514; 2003, no. 42-1919. 40. Review of the Cases of Lithuanian Honour Court of

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The Bank and Credit Union Disasters in Lithuania: Where Were the Lawyers?

References 1. Bainbridge, Stephen M. “Corporate Lawyers as Gatekeepers.” Journal of Scholarly Perspectives Vol. 8, No. 1 (2012): 1-20 // http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4tn3p38g.pdf. 2. Barry, Brock E., and Matthew W. Ohland. “Applied Ethics in the Engineering, Health, Business, and Law Professions: A Comparison.” Journal of Engineering Education Vol. 98, No. 4 (2009): 377-388. 3. Harrington, Joanna. “The New National Standard for the Canadian Common Law Degree: What place for Internationalization in Our

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Type 2 Diabetes in People from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds: Perspectives for Training and Practice from Nutritional Therapy and Dietician Professions

Abstract

Objective: To explore the perspectives of nutritional therapy and dietician practitioners, undergraduate students and academics working with people with type 2 diabetes and who are from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. Methods: A qualitative study design of in-depth semi-structured one-on-one interviews with a total of 24 participants (8 practitioners, 8 students and 8 academics) in the fields of nutritional therapy and dietetics. Open-ended questions focused on the perspectives and experiences (learning, practice and teaching) of working with people of CALD backgrounds who have type 2 diabetes. All interviews were recorded for thematic and textual analysis. Results: Inter-related themes which were confirmed with investigator triangulation were the understanding of (i) the concepts of culture and diversity, (ii) the concepts and influences of health, diabetes and food across cultures, (iii) influences within and across cultures and (iv) systems and resourcing. Overarching perspectives across these themes suggested frustration in having sufficient capacity to assess comprehensively, to deliver effective, comprehensive and high quality management plans, and to achieve required health behavioural changes with people from different CALD backgrounds. Conclusions: There’s a need for improvements in the undergraduate education and training and in professional development programs; training and resourcing of interpreters in delivery of health-related information and working with health professionals; for focus on culturally appropriate management plans that involve consultation with key decision makers in families and communities; and, reviews of the systems for supporting and resourcing nutritional therapists and dieticians in professional development from undergraduate to practice levels.

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Sex determination in Northern Thai from crania by using computer-aided design software and conventional caliper methods

Abstract

Background

Identification of sex from skeletal remains is an essential step in forensic anthropology. The skull is the second choice, after the pelvis, to estimate sex by osteometric methods.

Objective

To evaluate the process of identification of sex in Northern Thai from crania by using computer-aided design (AutoCAD) software and conventional caliper methods.

Methods

Dry skulls of 86 men and 74 women were examined. AutoCAD software and digital calipers were used to measure dimensions. Eleven of the 15 parameters were created for this study.

Results

Men are significantly larger than women in all parameters, except in the nasospinale–prosthion measurement. There were no significant differences in the intraobserver error test and between the AutoCAD and digital caliper measurements. The logistic regression analysis yielded a sex classification accuracy rate of 92.9% in men, 93.4% in women, and 93.1% of overall accuracy for AutoCAD software. When using digital calipers, there was an accuracy rate of 89.3% in men, 94.7% in women, and 91.9% for overall accuracy.

Conclusions

AutoCAD software is a reliable method to predict the sex and provide high accuracy in sex determination from crania.

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Outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with obstructive jaundice with and without preoperative biliary drainage: a retrospective observational study

Abstract

Background

Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary neoplasms may reduce the untoward effects of biliary obstruction and subsequent postoperative complications. However, PBD is associated with bile contamination and increases infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).

Objectives

To determine whether PBD is associated with more complications after PD.

Methods

Patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary lesions who underwent PD from 2000 to 2015 at our institution were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort was divided into a group with PBD and a group without. PBD was performed using one of the following methods: endoprosthesis, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, surgical biliary-enteric bypass, or T-tube choledochostomy. PDs were performed by the first author using uniform surgical techniques. Postoperative complications were recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using an unpaired t, Fisher exact, or chi-squared tests as appropriate.

Results

There were 26 with PBD and 28 patients without. Patients in the 2 groups were similar in age, presenting serum bilirubin level, operative time, operative blood transfusion, and hospital stay. The group with PBD had longer duration of jaundice, more patients presenting with cholangitis, and more patients with carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The overall complications were higher in patients in the group with PBD than in the group without.

Conclusions

PBD was associated with more complications overall after PD. However, PBD was necessary and lifesaving in certain clinical situations and improved the condition of patients before they underwent PD. Routine PBD in patients with obstructive jaundice without definite indications is not recommended.

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Lactobacillus plantarum B7 attenuates Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice: preclinical study in vitro and in vivo

Abstract

Background

Salmonella typhimurium is a cause of gastroenteritis including diarrhea. Lactobacillus plantarum is a probiotic widely used to prevent and treat diarrhea.

Objectives

To determine the protective effects of L. plantarum B7 on diarrhea in mice induced by S. typhimurium.

Methods

Inhibition of S. typhimurium growth by L. plantarum B7 was determined using an agar spot method. Mice were divided into 3 groups (n = 8 each): a control group, an S group administered 3 × 109 CFU/mL S. typhimurium, and an S + LP group administered 1 × 109 CFU/mL L. plantarum B7 and 3 × 109 CFU/mL S. typhimurium daily for 3 days. Counts of S. typhimurium and percentage of fecal moisture content (%FMC) were determined from stool samples. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CXCL1 were determined.

Results

L. plantarum B7 produced a clear zone on S. typhimurium. There were significantly less S. typhimurium in the feces from mice in the S+LP group than in the S group. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CXCL1 in mice from the S group were significantly higher than levels in the S+LP and control groups. Feces from mice in the S group were soft and loose, whereas in the S+LP group they were hard and rod shaped. The %FMC in the S+LP group was significantly less than in the S group.

Conclusions

L. plantarum B7 can inhibit growth of S. typhimurium, decrease levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and attenuate symptoms of diarrhea induced in mice by S. typhimurium.

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Anatomy of the vasculature supplying hepatobiliary structures and celiac trunk branching patterns in the Thai population

Abstract

Background

Knowledge of the anatomy of the celiac trunk (CT) and arterial supply of the hepatobiliary system is essential for surgical and interventional radiological treatment of upper abdominal diseases.

Objectives

To determine the branching patterns of the CT and variation in origin and type of the right hepatic artery (RHA), left hepatic artery (LHA), and cystic artery (CA).

Methods

The anatomy of the CT in 100 cadavers from Thai adult donors was observed in 3 aspects: its branching pattern, the origin of the RHA and LHA, and the origin of the CA and its relation to the common bile duct (CBD) and common hepatic duct (CHD).

Results

The majority of the CT branching pattern was categorized as the type II classical pattern, which has 3 branches: the left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), and common hepatic artery (CHA). The RHA branched from proper hepatic artery in 67 cadavers. The origin of the accessory RHA was either from the abdominal aorta or superior mesenteric artery (SMA), whereas the replaced RHA originated from the CHA, SMA, or CT. The accessory LHA ramified from CHA (2 cases) and LGA (1 case). The replaced LHA was found in 30 cadavers and 29 arose from the CHA. The single and double types of CA were found in 94 and 4 cadavers, respectively. In all, 57% of single CA passed posteriorly and 39% passed anteriorly to the CBD and CHD.

Conclusions

To lower posttreatment complications, variations in the anatomy and the vascular supply of hepatobiliary structures should be considered.

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Association of SLC1A2 and SLC17A7 polymorphisms with major depressive disorder in a Thai population

Abstract

Background

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder with high prevalence and high risk of suicide. Genetic variation of glutamate transporters may associate with MDD and suicide attempt.

Objectives

To evaluate polymorphisms of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 gene (SLC1A2; rs752949, rs1885343, rs4755404, and rs4354668) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 gene (SLC17A7; rs1043558, rs2946848, and rs11669017) in patients with MDD with and without suicide attempt, and determine the association of these polymorphisms with age of onset and severity of MDD.

Methods

DNA was extracted from blood taken from patients with MDD (n = 100; including nonsuicidal [n = 50] and suicidal [n = 50] subgroups) and controls (n = 100). Genotyping was conducted using TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping.

Results

We found a significant difference in SLC17A7 rs2946848 genotype distribution between patients in the MDD and control groups (P = 0.016). Moreover, significant differences in SLC1A2 rs752949 (P = 0.022) and SLC17A7 rs2946848 (P = 0.026) genotype distributions were observed between patients in the nonsuicidal MDD and suicidal MDD groups. SLC1A2 rs1885343 A allele carriers showed significantly lower age of onset than GG genotype (P = 0.049). Furthermore, the severity of MDD indicated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score of G allele carriers of SLC1A2 rs4755404 was significantly greater than the CC genotype (P = 0.013).

Conclusions

Polymorphisms of SLC1A2 and SLC17A7 may contribute to the risk of MDD and/or suicide attempt. An association of an SLC1A2 polymorphism with the severity of MDD was apparent.

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Anatomic variations of coronary arteries: origins, branching patterns, and abnormalities

Abstract

Background

Anatomic variations in orifices, courses, branching patterns, and abnormalities of coronary arteries could affect blood supply, hemodynamic characteristics, and clinical symptoms, and could be a risk of atherosclerosis.

Objectives

To investigate the location and number of both coronary orifices in the aortic cusps, branching patterns of left main trunk, dominant pattern of posterior interventricular artery (PIA), prevalence of right posterior diagonal artery (RPDA), myocardial bridge, and other abnormalities.

Methods

We dissected 95 heart specimens from cadavers of Thai donors without the history of surgery, and the dominant patterns, location and number of orifices in the aortic cusps, branching patterns, origin and number of conal arteries, and occurrence of RPDA were determined.

Results

Dual aortic origin of the coronary orifice was the most common condition. Anomalous 2 orifices in the left aortic cusp were found in one specimen in which the right coronary artery (RCA) arose from aortic cusp and had an interarterial course. Right dominance and trifurcated form of left main trunk were found more frequently. Most frequently 2 conal arteries were found. RPDA was found in 45% and mostly originated from RCA. The prevalence of myocardial bridge was 62% and located mostly on the anterior interventricular artery (AIA).

Conclusions

The prevalence of right dominance, RPDA, the atypical origin of RCA from the left sinus, and the prevalence of myocardial bridges was more frequent than reported by others, whereas the dual aortic origin from both cusps and the prevalence of bifurcated left main trunk was less frequent.

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