flattening process, and then undergoes the fabrication process producing IC chips. The focus of this research project is on the silicon wafer manufacturing.
The silicon wafer manufacturing consists of four key value-adding processes: slicing, lapping, chemical etching and polishing. The primary aim of the slicing process is to define the crystal structure of the wafer, finding the best possible shape. The wafer is subjected to high-pressure cutting, to achieve correct wafer thickness, but on the downside, it causes high surface damage and contamination. The second stage
Kristina Grünenberg and Anna Mikaela v. Freiesleben
. The article relates to the overall theme of this special issue through its focus on the intersection between urban policy discourses and practices that aim at promoting social cohesion on the one hand, and a focus on ethnicity on the other. The article looks into the specific way in which an agenda of socio-cultural encounters and mixing, based on, for example, urban planning research, is put into practice. We argue that the particular notion of mixing developed in the urban regeneration projects and practices, which are the focus of this article, are tightly linked
Despite the noticeable need to undertake action designed to improve the situation of degraded urban spaces, the concept of revitalisation, also referred to as urban regeneration, has until recently been interpreted in various ways. It was primarily understood as the renovation or modernisation of buildings and public spaces. This understanding probably resulted from the lack of a comprehensive statutory definition. One of the first Polish definitions referred to urban regeneration as: ‘a process of continuous actions, the aim of which is to
Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis and Theodoros I. Platanou
High-level water-polo players participate in a prolonged competitive period including pre-season and in-season training. Especially during the in-season period, high-level players participate in an official match almost every week and train up to nine times per week ( Lupo et al., 2014b ). In most of the European Leagues, the competitive period is organized in two phases. In the first phase, all teams compete against each other twice, aiming at adding victories to classification. In the second phase, only the top classified teams compete in a
Davorina Petek, Ambrož Pušnik, Polona Selič, Eva Cedilnik-Gorup, Žan Trontelj, Marine Riou and Jean Yves Le Reste
reliability produce more consistent and accurate results.
Internationally, several tools have been used to assess therapeutic alliance in previous research ( 8 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). In Slovenia, different studies have been conducted assessing various doctor-patient relationship attributes, such as empathy ( 16 ) or patient satisfaction ( 2 ), but no study has validated or even used the therapeutic alliance scales. This survey is the Slovenian part of an international research study aiming to validate the WAI-SR scale for therapeutic alliance for patients and
Rewitalizacja : Between a structural approach and a fountain
Every planning system produces its own ideology. While ostensibly aimed at transforming spaces, urban planning is also a discursive practice organized around a set of ideological keywords ( Gunder & Hiller 2009 ). Many of those keywords are currently global in scope – words like ‘sustainability’, ‘smart city’ or ‘sustainable development’ organize planning debates around the world. Some of them, however, even if they sound familiar in several places, perform ideological functions that are regionally
(2004) , should be considered in terms of systemic and pragmatic conditions. The first group derived from the need to build the state’s territorial system with regional governments as main entities of the regional policy and at the same time the need to coordinate development activities at the national level, for which the contract was to be the basic instrument. The second group, related to pragmatic conditions, aimed to ensure the competence coordination and arrange the allocation of, on the one hand, national and foreign public means, as assumed, and on the other
From Lignite Mining to Tourism in the Lusatian Lakeland
Gerd Lintz, Peter Wirth and Jörn Harfst
economic decline involved, at the time, co-ordinating the large-scale rehabilitation of the mines with other endeavours that were aimed at developing the economy. In this way, a lakeland was created with the goal of establishing a basis for supra-regional tourism.
Chapter 2 introduces the conceptual foundations of the present contribution. It begins by discussing the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and regional structural change. This debate is followed by a deeper theoretical analysis of sectoral and regional co-ordination policies. Chapter 3 is devoted to a
Articles 31– 33. See Territorial Dispute (Libya/Chad) , Judgment of 3 February 1994, ICJ Reports 1994, pp. 21–22, para. 41. In any case, a different customary international law existed in 1962, when the International Law Commission (ILC) initiated work aimed to codify international rules on treaty interpretation. If claims are made that the rules laid down in Articles 31–33 of the VCLT are identical with customary rules on treaty interpretation, consequently, this cannot explain why Articles 31–33 are always relevant for the interpretation of tax treaties concluded by
Sylwia Tobólska, Sylwia Terpiłowska, Jerzy Jaroszewski and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
use of mammalian cells in in vitro tests increases the sensitivity for the detection of rodent carcinogens and extends the spectrum of genetic incidences detected. A battery approach is reasonable because no single test is able to detect all genotoxic mechanisms. The general features of a standard test battery are as follows:
1. assessment of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse gene mutation test by Ames;
2. genotoxicity evaluated in mammalian cells in vitro and/or in vivo by comet and micronuclei assays ( 10 ).
The aim of the presented work was to