. CONROY, 2006. Enhancing the self-esteem of youth swimmers through coach training: gender and age effects. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol. 7, p. 173-192. ISSN 1469-0292.
4. CUMMING, S. P., F. L. SMOLL, R. E. SMITH & J. R. GROSSBARD, 2007. Is Winning Everything? The Relative Contributions of Motivational Climate and Won-Lost Percentage in Youth Sports. In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 19(3), p. 322-336. ISSN 1041-3200.
5. DUDA, J. L., 2004. The Motivational Climate, Perceived Ability, and Athletes’ Psychological and
Glass, D.C, Singer, J.E.(1972). Urban stress . New York: Academic Press.
Gollwitzer, P. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning. W: P.M. Gollwitzer, J.A. Bargh (red.) The psychology of action. Linking cognition and motivation to behaviour . New York: Guliford.
Harvey, J. J.H. (1976). Attribution of freedom. W: J.H.Harvey, W.I. Ickes, R.F. Kidd (red.). New directions in attribution research , t.1, Hillsdale, New York: Erbaum.
Harvey, J.H., Harris, B. (1975). Determinants of perceived choice and the relationship between perceived choice and
Abdul Muthalib, Nur Anuar. 2003. Occupational Stress and Coping Strategies as Perceived by Secondary School Principals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Doctoral dissertation, Education. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Allison, Donald G. 1995. An Investigation of Administrative Stress and Coping in British Columbia Elementary and Secondary School Principals. Doctoral dissertation, Educational Studies. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Bandura, Albert. 1977. Self-Efficacy. Toward a Unifying Theory of
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
abuser, or HIV infected ( Chandler et al., 2015 ). However, some people have these characteristics and are responsible for adverse childhood experiences, which may raise the perceivedstress and initiate or precipitate risky health behaviours for some children ( Chandler et al., 2015 ). Growing evidence revealed both short- and long-term adversities to health and well-being due to adverse life experiences in childhood, particularly when adversities are enduring, cumulative, or occurring during sensitive periods in early developing phase ( Masten & Barnes, 2018
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize studies aiming to define matters related to the quality of explanations found in corporate governance statements published by listed companies. Another important aspect of the conducted analysis is the identification of various dimensions of explanation quality. Methodology: The character of the conducted research is that of an overview of literature devoted to the subject. Apart from scientific articles, it covers European Union regulations, regulations characteristic of countries selected for the analysis (member states of the European Union), and applied solutions aimed at guaranteeing the desired quality of explanations for deviation included in corporate governance statements that are in the centre of attention. Findings: The conducted analysis organizes the current knowledge concerning actions aimed at improving the quality of explanations for deviation from principles of corporate governance. Without a doubt, the primary pillar consists of the level of information and its quality, as found in explanations for shareholders. It is this quality that determines if the shareholder understands the processes occurring in the realm of corporate governance in the company. Research limitations: The conducted analysis should be treated as an introduction to related research issues. It should be stressed that research into explanations provided by companies is still in the process of development, and the number of publications devoted to this topic is still modest. Practical implications: The study fits in the research into the phenomena of the “comply or explain” mechanism as applied in practice, which according of many researchers, continues to be poorly investigated. In terms of the directions for further research, there are promising topics including e.g. identification of factors that may translate into the quality of such statements (e.g. ownership structure, identity of shareholders), the role that should be played by institutions involved in developing CG codes (i.e. their successive versions), and the involvement of the board of directors/ supervisory board in the evaluation process. Originality: The present paper identifies the key factors perceived as determining the quality of corporate governance statements. In addition to that, it outlines new avenues for further investigation.
1. Parkes KR. Coping in stressful episodes: the role of individual differences, environmental factors, and situational characteristics. J Pers Soc Psychol., 1986;51(6):1277-92.
2. Barlem JG, Lunardi VL, Barlem EL, Ramos AM, Figueira AB, Fornari NC. Nursing beliefs and actions in exercising patient advocacy in a hospital context. Rev Esc Enferm USP., 2015;49(5):811-8.
3. Burgess L, Irvine F, Wallymahmed A. Personality, stress and coping in intensive care nurses: a descriptive exploratory study. Nurs Crit Care., 2010
Ljiljana Leskovic, Goran Vukovič, Robert Leskovar and Jana Goriup
burnout Among Healthcare Employees as Perceived by managers. Journal of Advanced nursing, 60(1), 10-19.
Goriup, J., & Purgaj, T. (2009). Nekateri sociološki vidiki razširjenosti mobinga med učitelji v osnovni šoli. Revija za elementarno izobraževanje, 2(4), 5-26.
Klančnik Gruden, M. (2003). Sociološki vidiki položaja in vloge medicinskih sester v Sloveniji, študija primera. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za socialno delo.
Leskovic, L., Leskovar, R., & Vukovič, G. (2014). Interdisciplinary treatment of combustion phenomenon in
István Csáki, Zsolt Szakály, Barbara Fózer-Selmec, Selmeci Zoltán Kiss and József Bognár
Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Anshel, M.H., Jamieson, J. & Raviv, S. (2001). Coping with acute stress among male and female Israeli athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 271-289.
Armour, K. & MacDonald, D. (Eds.) (2012). Research methods in physical education and youth sport. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
stress-regulatory systems [ 11 ]. Accumulated stress appears to negatively impact our ability to respond to stress, and also affects how we perceivestress in relation to our emotional response to environment. Adaptation to stress has its own consequences, including outcomes such as preterm birth.
Early life experiences appear to increase human susceptibility for anxiety and depression that are known risk factors for preterm birth [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. Chronic stressors are recognized for being particularly salient among poor and minority women, that is, women who also
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes affects people in their productive years and significantly influences their quality of life. Organized peer support provided by specially trained patients or volunteers who have experience with diabetes can be of crucial importance in supporting a patient's endeavours to lead a healthy lifestyle while managing the disease.
Objective: The aim of this research was to establish whether organized peer support exists in diabetes organizations of the Gorenjska region, Slovenia, and how patients feel about the usefulness of and the need for implementing a peer support system.
Methods: The sample included 78 respondents, accounting for 58.6% of all type 2 diabetes cases treated for the first time at the specialist diabetes clinic of the Jesenice General Hospital in 2009. The participants were given a questionnaire in which they indicated the level of agreement with the given statements on a five-point scale. The Cronbach alpha for all 18 statements was 0.71.
Results: Organized peer support is not yet available for members of diabetes organizations in the Gorenjska region. Most respondents do not perceive diabetes as a source of great emotional stress or as a reason for a lower quality of life. Patients receiving insulin therapy (p=.013), and those with chronic complications (p=.037), reported significant deterioration in quality of life. Women were more eager to learn how their peers manage their lives (p=.045), and to obtain information from experienced peers to help and support them (p=.032). A positive correlation was found between the respondents' opinion that diabetes presents a source of high emotional stress and that shearing experience with peers would help them reduce this stress (r=.517, p=.000); that peer experience would help them in everyday, practical situations (r=.306, p=.007); and that peer experience would help them manage their life with diabetes better (r=.447, p=.000).
Discussion: The research results stressed the need for introduction of peer support. We were surprised by the patients' low level of awareness regarding the benefits they could derive from talking to peers. Peer support interventions would bring the desired level of quality to the concept of personalization in diabetes care. Treatment practices for patients with diabetes in Slovenia have shown that organizing a peer support system is considered an option, but has not yet become a standard practice. Peer support can be a powerful source of empowerment and of individualisation of treatment. Its implementation, however, will have to involve the active participation of members of health care teams treating patients with diabetes.