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Amanda M. Clifford and Elaine Harrington

of patients with patellofemoral pain. Am J Sports Med , 2002; 30(3): 447-456 Gilleard W, McConnell, J, Parsons D. The effect of patellar taping on the onset of vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscle activity in persons with patellofemoral pain. Phys Ther , 1998; 78(1): 25-31 Greenwald A, Bagley A, France E, Paulos L, Greenwald N. A biomechanical and clinical evaluation of a patellofemoral knee brace. Clin Orthop Relat R , 1996; 324: 187-195 Herrington L, Nester C. Q-angle undervalued? The relationship

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Géraldine Martens, Dorian Deflandre, Cédric Schwartz, Nadia Dardenne and Thierry Bury

powerful and is extensively used by investigators (although the validity of the data is sometimes questionable due to skin movement artefacts) ( Leardini et al., 2005 ; Reinschmidt et al., 1997 ). It is suited to assess biomechanical patterns of the normal gait ( Deflandre et al., 2016 ; Pietraszewski et al., 2012 ), to investigate abnormal movements that cause injuries ( Bruderer-Hofstetter et al., 2015 ) and to estimate the success of interventions intended to correct gait anomalies ( Ferber et al., 2005 ) or enhance performance ( Snyder et al., 2009 ). There are

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M. Olinski, A. Gronowicz, A. Handke and M. Ceccarelli

instant-centre analysis of function The J. of Bone and Joint Surgery 65-B 4 391 399 [7] Ogrodzka K., Niedźwiedzki T. and Chwała W. (2011): Evaluation of the kinematic parameters of normal-paced gait in subjects with gonarthrosis and the influence of gonarthrosis on the function of the ankle joint and hip joint . – Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, vol.13, No.3, pp.47-54. Ogrodzka K. Niedźwiedzki T. Chwała W. 2011 Evaluation of the kinematic parameters of normal-paced gait in subjects with gonarthrosis and the influence of

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Krzysztof Maćkała, łukasz JÓŹwiak and Jacek Stodółka

(3), 261-268. 4. Novacheck T.F. (1998). The biomechanics of running. Gait Posture 7(1), 77-95. 5. Nummela A., Rusko H., Mero A. (1994). EMG activities and ground reaction force during fatigued and nonfatigued sprinting. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercises 26(5), 605- 609. 6. Cavanagh P.R., Kram R. (1990). Stride length in distance running: velocity, body dimensions, and added mass effects. In P.R. Cavanagh (ed.), Biomechanics of distance running (pp. 35-63). Illinois: Human Kinetic Books. 7. Brüggemann G.P., Koszewski D., Müller H. (1997

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Dalia Mohammed Mosaad and Amr Almaz Abdel-aziem

References 1.Abaraogu U.O., Ezenwankwo E.F., Nwadilibe I.B., Nwafor G.C., Ugwuele B.O., Uzoh P.C., Ani I., Amarachineke K., Atuma C., Ewelunta O. (2017) Immediate responses to backpack carriage on postural angles in young adults: A crossover randomized self-controlled study with repeated measures. Work, 57(1): 87-93. DOI: 10.3233/WOR-172531. 2. Attwells R.L., Birrell S.A., Hooper R.H., Mansfield N.J. (2006) Influence of carrying heavy loads on soldiers’ posture, movements and gait. Ergonomics, 49(14): 1527

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Janusz Iskra and Milan Coh

study of technique in sport [in Polish]. In: Urbanik Cz. (ed.), Problems of biomechanics in sport - technique of movement. AWF, Warszawa 2003, 19-40. Iskra J., Coh M., A review of biomechanical studies in hurdle races. Kinesiologia Slovenica , 2006, 1, 84-102. Wilkerson J. D., Biomechanics. In: Massengale J. D., Swanson R. A. (eds.), The history of exercise and sport sciences. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1997, 321-366. Bedini R.,100 m and 110 m hurdle races [in Italian]. Atleticastudi , 1988

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Jonathan Sinclair, Paul J. Taylor and Sarah J. Hobbs

and gravity to tibial acceleration. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1991, 23 (3), 360-363, doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(89) 90339-4. 8. Lake M.J., Greenhalgh A., Impact shock measurements during running: Correction for angular motion of the shank is necessary. In: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. July 27-29 Cleveland, USA 2005. Available from: URL: http://,MJ1.Impactshock.pdf. 9. Sinclair J., Greenhalgh A., Edmundson C.J., Brooks D., Hobbs S.J., Gender differences

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Jonathan Sinclair, Paul J Taylor and Lindsay Bottoms

A, Cappello A, Croce U, Pensalfini F. Surface-marker cluster design criteria for 3-D bone movement reconstruction. IEEE T Bio-Med Eng , 1997; 44: 1165-1174 Hamill J, Selbie WS. Three-dimensional kinematics: In Robertson GM, Hamill J, Caldwell G, Kamen G, Whittlesey S. Ed: Research Methods in Biomechanics. Human Kinetics, 222-225; 2004 Kadaba MP, Ramakrishnan HK, Wootten ME. Measurement of lower extremity kinematics during level walking. J Orthopaed Res , 1990; 8: 383-392 Novacheck TF. The biomechanics of running

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Zhiwen Lu, Gaoming Jiang, Honglian Cong and Xi Yang

-552. [7] BARTON, C. J., D. BONANNO, et al. Development and evaluation of a tool for the assessment of footwear characteristics[J]. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 2009, 2. [8] Ciesielska-Wrobel I L, Van Langenhove L, Grabowska K. Fingertip skin models for analysis of the haptic perception of textiles[J]. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 2014, 7:1-6. [9] SCOTT, S. H. and D. A. WINTER. Biomechanical model of the human foot: kinematics and kinetics during the stance phase of walking[J]. Journal of biomechanics, 1993, 26(9): 1091

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Anna Gogola, M. Matyja, K. Żoczek and P. Wodzisz

, Brown M, Daniels M. Worthingham's Muscle Testing: Techniques of Manual Examination and Performance Testing, 9th Edition, Elsevier, 2013. 9. Lang LMG, Volpe RG, Wernick J. Static biomechanical evaluation of the foot and lower limb: the podiatrist's perspective. Man Ther, 1997;2:58-66. 10. Lincoln TL, Suen PW. Common rotational variations in children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg, 2003;11:312-320. 11. Myers T. Anatomy trains: myofascial meridians and movement therapists. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2001. 12