Search Results

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 1,031 items for :

Clear All
Open access

Luděk Kouba, Michal Mádr, Danuše Nerudová and Petr Rozmahel

Abstract

Within the context of the continuing integration process in Europe, this paper addresses the question of whether policies in the EU should head towards autonomy, coordination or harmonization. Taking the path dependence effect into account, it is the authors’ opinion that Europe has gone too far in its integration process to be able to continue with policies being fully under the competences of individual member countries. However, the habitual question still arises: does fiscal policy need to be harmonized to a level comparable to monetary policy as these two policies, necessarily, complement each other? This paper argues that it does not. There are three main arguments discussed. Firstly, the authors build on the theory of fiscal federalism. Secondly, there are significantly different regimes of welfare states and extents of social policies among European countries, which strongly determine the character of public finance. And thirdly, the tax systems across Europe are also highly divergent, with many features of continuing tax competition.

Open access

Oleksandr Shumskyi

REFERENCES 1. Aoki, N., Smith, R. (1999). Learner Autonomy in Cultural Context: the Case of Japan. In: Crabbe, D. & Cotterall, S. (Eds.). Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Defining the Field and Effecting Change . Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang GmbH International, pp. 19–27. 2. Holec, H. (1980). Learner Training: Meeting Needs in Self-Directed Learning. In: Altman, H. B. & James, C. V. (Eds.). Foreign Language Learning: Meeting Individual Needs . Oxford : Pergamon, pp. 30–45. 3. Holec, H. (1990). Qu’est-ce qu’apprendre a apprendre [What

Open access

Mirosław Pawlak and Mariusz Kruk

Abstract

Since the arrival of the Internet and its tools, computer technology has become of considerable significance to both teachers and students, and it is an obvious resource for foreign language teaching and learning. The paper presents the results of a study which aimed to determine the effect of the application of Internet resources on the development of learner autonomy as well as the impact of greater learner independence on attainment in English as a foreign language. The participants were 46 Polish senior high school students divided into the experimental group (N = 28) and the control (N = 18) group. The students in the experimental group were subjected to innovative instruction with the use of the Internet and the learners in the control group were taught in a traditional way with the help of the coursebook. The data were obtained by means questionnaires, interviews, learners’ logs, an Internet forum, observations as well as language tests, and they were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that the experimental students manifested greater independence after the intervention and they also outperformed the controls on language tests.

Open access

Laura Poanta

References 1. POROJAN M., COSTIN S., POANTA L., CERGHIZAN A., POP D., DUMITRASCU D.L. Autonomic neuropathy and plasma catecholamine in patients with diabetes mellitus. Rom. J. Intern. Med. 2010; 48(4):341-5.

Open access

Cecilia Rubiolo

, B. (2013). Border as Method, or, the Multiplication of Labour . Durham: Duke University Press. Mitropoulos, A. (2007). Autonomy, Recognition, Movement. In S. Shukaitis, D. Graeber, and E. Biddle (eds) Constituent Imagination. Militant Investigations, Collective Theorization. Oakland: AK Press. Mollona, M. (2005). Made in Sheffield. An Ethnography of Industrial Work and Politics . New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books. Moulier-Boutang, Y. (1998). De l'esclavage au salariat. Economie historique du salariat bridé . Paris: PUF. Neagoe

Open access

T. Maślanka

Abstract

One characteristic of the most common types of glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP), which has a damaging effect on optic nerve axons, leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. Therefore, ocular hypotensive drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for glaucoma. This review article, which is the second part of a two-part series, is dedicated to autonomic drugs which lower IOP by decreasing the aqueous humour production. These agents are subdivided into two groups: β-adrenergic antagonists and selective α2-adrenergic agonists. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on the mechanism of action of these drugs and their effect on IOP in dogs and cats. Moreover, it discusses their possible undesirable side effects of these medications and presents the current ideas about their role and position in the medical management of glaucoma in small animals.

Open access

Arnoldas Stramskas and Tomas Marcinkevičius

Abstract

This article contains four book reviews. The reviewed books are: Squatting in Europe: Radical Spaces, Urban Struggles (2013), by Squatting Europe Kollektive; Securitization of Property Squatting in Europe (2013), by Mary Manjikian; Barcelonan Okupas: Squatter Power!, by Stephen Luis Vilaseca; and, The Squatters’ Movement in Europe. Commons and Autonomy as Alternatives to Capitalism (2014), by Squatting Europe Kollektive, edited by Claudio Cattaneo and Miguel Martìnez Lòpez.

Open access

T. Maślanka

Abstract

One characteristic of the most common types of glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP), which has a damaging effect on optic nerve axons, leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. Therefore, ocular hypotensive drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for glaucoma. This review article, which is the first part of a two-part series, is dedicated to autonomic drugs which lower IOP by increasing the outflow of aqueous humour. These agents are subdivided into two groups: (a) drugs that lower IOP by increasing the trabecular outflow and the uveoscleral outflow (i.e. nonselective adrenergic agonists), and (b) medications that lower IOP by opening of the drainage angle and by increasing the conventional outflow via the trabecular outflow (i.e. parasympathomimetics). This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on the mechanism of action of these drugs and their effect on IOP in dogs and cats. Moreover, it discusses possible undesirable side effects of these medications and presents the current ideas about their role and position in the medical management of glaucoma in small animals