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Preparation of TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials from coal-series kaolin and photodegradation of methyl orange

Abstract

TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials were prepared via sol-gel method by loading titania onto Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve by hydrothermal treatment from coal-series kaolin as raw material. The TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, HRTEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange solution under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials possessed a high surface area of 369.9–751.3 m2/g and a homogeneous pore diameters of 2.3–2.8 nm. The titania crystalline phase was anatase, and the particles size of TiO2 increased with TiO2 content. The Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials exhibited excellent photodegradation activity under visible-light irradiation for methyl orange.

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Soft chemical synthesis of nanosized zinc aluminate spinel from the thermolysis of different organic precursors

Abstract

A new method of preparation of nanocrystalline zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) powder is described in this paper. Different organic acids are used as template material and nitric acid as an oxidant. Single phase ZnAl2O4 spinel can be formed at a much lower temperature through this route which gives nanocrystalline powder with uniform particle size and morphology. The powders are characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), BET surface area analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The average crystallite size of the single phase material was of 20 to 30 nm and the surface area was found to be 21 to 27 m2g−1.

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Fabrication of Ag and Au nanoparticles in cross-linked polymer microgels for their comparative catalytic study

Abstract

Three dimensional cross-linked polymer microgels with temperature responsive N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and pH sensitive methacrylic acid (MAA) were successfully synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization with different amounts of MAA. Silver and gold nanoparticles with the size of 6.5 nm and 3.5 nm (±0.5 nm), respectively were homogeneously reduced inside these materials by chemical reduction method at pH 2.78 and 8.36 for the preparation of hybrid materials. The samples were characterized by FT-IR, DLS and TEM techniques. The catalytic activity of the hybrid materials was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using NaBH4 as reducing agent by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The hybrid polymer network synthesized at pH 8.36 showed enhanced catalytic efficiency compared to the catalysts synthesized at pH 2.78. In this study, it has been stated that the catalyst activity strongly depends on the amount of MAA, pH value during synthesis and the type of entrapped metal nanoparticles.

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Structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped Sr2SiO4 phosphors

Abstract

Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/26H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.

Open access
Structural and optical properties of SnO2–Al2O3 nanocomposite synthesized via sol-gel route

Abstract

A nanocomposite of 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 has been synthesized using a sol-gel route. Structural and optical properties of the nanocomposite have been discussed in detail. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy confirm the phase purity and the particle size of the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposite (13 to 15 nm). The scanning electron microscopy also confirms the porosity in the sample, useful in sensing applications. The FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of physical interaction between SnO2 and Al2O3 due to the slight shifting and broadening of characteristic bands. The UV-Vis analysis confirms the semiconducting nature because of direct transition of electrons into the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposites.

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Influence of different synthesis conditions on properties of oleic acid-coated-Fe3O4 nanoparticles

Abstract

In the present paper, iron oxide nanoparticles coated by oleic acid have been synthesized in different conditions by coprecipitation method. For investigating the effect of time spent on adding the oleic acid to the precursor solution, two different processes have been considered. The as synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Magnetic measurement was carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the magnetic nanoparticles decorated with oleic acid decreased the saturation of magnetization. From the data, it can also be concluded that the magnetization of Fe3O4/oleic acid nanoparticles depends on synthesis conditions.

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Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal and third order nonlinear optical properties of novel organic single crystal: 4-methylpyridinium 3-nitrophthalate

Abstract

A novel 4-methylpyridinium 3-nitrophthalate (4MP3NP) was synthesized and the crystals were grown by using slow evaporation method. The structural data of the grown crystal was collected by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It revealed that the 4MP3NP crystal belongs to triclinic crystal system with a space group P1. Structure of the synthesized compound was established using SHELXL 97 program package. The crystalline nature and composition of the grown crystal was established using high resolution X-ray diffraction and FT-IR analyses. UV-Vis transmittance and photoluminescence studies revealed the optical transmission window and electronic transition mechanism of ions, respectively. The laser damage threshold of the grown crystal was estimated by Nd:YAG laser and these results were mutually related to specific heat capacity of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was studied by Z-scan technique.

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Growth, spectral, density functional theory (DFT) and Hirshfeld surface analysis on 4-aminopyridinium adipate monohydrate nonlinear optical single crystal

Abstract

4-aminopyridinium adipate monohydrate (4APA) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The functional groups in the grown crystal were identified from FT-IR spectral evaluation. The optical properties together with transmittance of the grown crystal were obtained from UV-Vis spectroscopic study. The mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystal were studied using Vickers microhardness and TGA/DTA analyses, respectively. Microhardness test revealed that 4-aminopyridinium adipate monohydrate crystal is a soft category material. The density functional method (DFT) was performed using B3LYP with the 6-311G (d,p) basis set. The electronic charge distribution, reactivity of the molecules and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of the grown crystal were analyzed using the B3LYP method. The intermolecular interactions that exist in the crystal structure of the 4APA have also been investigated by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The nonlinear optical properties of the 4APA crystal were confirmed by Kurtz-Perry technique.

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An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid as MRI contrast agent using Taguchi method

Abstract

In this study, some stabilized magnetite based ferrofluids were synthesized using Dextran as a stabilizing agent. In order to achieve optimum experimental conditions for synthesizing ferrofluids as MRI contrast agents, the Taguchi method was used. This approach was employed to design and minimize the number of required experiments. By using the Taguchi orthogonal (L16) array, four parameters including solution temperature and alkalinity, reaction temperature and stirring rate were selected at four predetermined levels for 16 experiments. Synthesizing processes established based on this set of experimental conditions were carried out and the obtained ferrofluids were characterized using PCS, VSM, TEM and FT-IR techniques. The obtained results were used and analyzed through the Qualitek-4 software and the proposed optimum experimental conditions were used for synthesizing the desired sample. Finally, this sample was used as a potential MRI contrast agent for imaging lymph nodes.

Open access
TiO2 supported on SiO2 photocatalysts prepared using ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method

Abstract

TiO2-SiO2 (TiO2 supported on SiO2) photocatalysts were prepared using an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method. These photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). Their photocatalytic activities were investigated by the method of methyl orange oxidation. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2-SiO2 was optimal when the molar ratio of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide to titanium butoxide was 1:10. The average crystallite size of TiO2-SiO2 was smaller than that prepared by the stirring method. Furthermore, for pure anatase phase samples, it was shown that the lower the photoluminescence intensity, the higher the photocatalytic activity.

Open access