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Open access

Katarina Boričić, Snežana Simić, Nađa Vasiljević and Jelena Marinković


Introduction. The pandemic of obesity in adolescents is one of the challenges of public health.

Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the association of overweight with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors among Serbian adolescents.

Method. A cross-sectional study of 2139 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was carried out. Data used in this study were from the 2006 Health Survey. In accordance with the international sex- and age-specific Body Mass Index cut-off points, all participants were classified as being normal weight or overweight, including obese. The association between the risk factors and overweight were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model.

Results. The study showed that 28.9% of boys and 17.0% of girls were overweight, while 14.5% of boys and 8.1% of girls were obese. Boys were more likely to be overweight/obese, compared with girls. Being younger (p< 0.01 for 14 to 15 years) and (p< 0.01, for 16 to 19 years), engaging in physical activities that last less than 7 hours a week, in such a manner that they breathe quickly and become sweaty, (p< 0.01) and skipping breakfast (p< 0.05) were risk factors significantly associated with overweight among adolescents. No significant association was found with wealth index.

Conclusion. These findings should be an integral part of further preventive interventions, especially oriented towards younger adolescents, who are physically inactive, have a habit of skipping breakfast and are boys.

Open access

Yi-ping Zhong, Xiao-ting Shen, Ying Ying, Hai-tao Wu, Jin Li, Quan Qi, Can-quan Zhou and Guang-lun Zhuang

Impact of Transitory Hyperprolactinemia on Clinical Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of serum prolactin concentration at the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). A total of 184 patients receiving the IVF-ET/ICSI-ET from October 2005 to March 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the serum prolactin concentration [<30 ng/mL (A), 30-60 ng/mL (B), 60-90 ng/mL (C), ≥90 ng/mL (D)] on the day of HCG administration during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). In the Groups A, B, C and D, the implantation rate was 11.76%, 19.71%, 12.72% and 2.22%, respectively, and the pregnancy rate (PR) was 25.00%, 42.70%, 27.30% and 5.88%, respectively. The implantation rate and PR in the Group D were markedly lower than those in the remaining groups (P=0.011 and 0.009). During the COS, the serum prolactin concentration was dramatically elevated when compared with the baseline level leading to transient hyperprolactinemia. In addition, the implantation rate and pregnancy rate were significantly markedly decreased when the serum prolactin concentration was remarkably increased (≥90 ng/mL). To improve the clinical pregnancy rate of IVF-ET, close monitoring and appropriate intervention are needed for patients with an abnormal prolactin level during the COS.

Open access

Ivan Kosalec, Snježana Ramić, Dubravko Jelić, Roberto Antolović, Stjepan Pepeljnjak and Nevenka Kopjar

Assessment of Tryptophol Genotoxicity in Four Cell Lines In Vitro: A Pilot Study with Alkaline Comet Assay

Tryptophol is an aromatic alcohol and secondary metabolite of the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans. Although its toxicity profile at cell level has been poorly investigated, recent data point to cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects in lymphocytes and the induction of apoptosis in leukaemic blood monocytes. In this pilot study we evaluated the genotoxicity of tryptophol in vitro on four permanent cell lines of animal and human origin: ovary cells, alveolar epithelium, liver cells, and blood monocytes using the alkaline comet assay. We selected cells that might be principal targets of tryptophol and other low-molecular geno(toxins) secreted by Candida albicans during host invasion. Our results suggest that tryptophol applied in vitro at 2 mmol L-1 for 24 h damages DNA in HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells, obviously due to bioactivation and/or decomposition of the parent compound, which results in the formation of more genotoxic compound(s) and production of reactive species that additionally damage DNA. On the other hand, notably lower levels of primary DNA damage were recorded in CHO cells, which lack metabolic activity. Future studies with tryptophol should look further into mechanisms involved in its toxic action and should focus on other cell types prone to infection with Candida spp. such as vaginal epithelial cells or keratinocytes of human origin.

Open access

Gordana Medunić, Iva Juranović Cindrić, Ivanka Lovrenčić Mikelić, Nenad Tomašić, Dražen Balen, Višnja Oreščanin, Štefica Kampić and Ivana Ivković


The aim of this study was to establish the fractionation of copper and zinc in a small apple orchard using the revised (four-step) Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure and assess their potential mobility in soil. Soil samples were collected at the depth of 10 cm to 25 cm, sixteen from the orchard and five control samples from a meadow located some 200 m away from the orchard. As the distribution of trace-element concentrations in the control samples was normal, they were used for comparison as background levels. We also determined soil mineralogical composition, carbonate content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil organic matter. The extraction yields of Cu and Zn from the control soil were lower than from the orchard soil (25 % vs. 34 % and 47 % vs. 52 %, respectively), which pointed to natural processes behind metal bonding in the control soil and greater influence of man-made activities in the orchard soil. Compared to control, the orchard soil had significantly higher concentrations of total Cu (P=0.0009), possibly due to the application of Cu-based fungicides. This assumption was further supported by greater speciation variability of Cu than of zinc, which points to different origins of the two, Cu from pesticides and Zn from the parent bedrock. Copper levels significantly better (P=0.01) correlated with the oxidisable fraction of the orchard soil than of control soil. Residual and organically bound copper and zinc constituted the most important fractions in the studied soils. However, the use of Cu-based fungicides in the apple orchard did not impose environmental and health risk from Cu exposure.

Open access

Danica Popović and Mirko Popović

Dilemmas and Controversies in the Interpretation of Laboratory Results

Concentration of many substances in blood is a good indicator of the physiologic state of a patient. It is usual that results obtained represent the real concentration of tested substances in a patient, that is, represent his physiological state. The influence of some factors indicates that this assumption is not always true. Mistakes owing to analytic factors are reduced to the least possible rate by using the quality control. Also, many nonanalytic factors can change the concentration of one or more substances in the sample, so the results obtained are not an indicator of the physiological state of the patient. Results of clinical-biochemical determination are interpreted by comparing with the reference values and so the conclusion is made by a comparison method. In order to perform this process properly, reference values for each specific parameter are necessary. Cyclic variations, physical activity, stress, and other factors significantly affect the obtained result analysis. In the interpretation of results, these specificities have to be considered, otherwise they will be interpreted as pathologic, which leads to wrong conclusions. Inadequate preparation of a patient for a certain analysis and disrespect for rules regarding preparation and sample analyzing can lead to drastic deviation of results from the real values. For those reasons there are certain dilemmas and controversies in the result interpretation.

Open access

K. Kesavanarayanan, Mohanavelu Nappinnai and Raju Ilavarasan

Topical dosage form of valdecoxib: Preparation and pharmacological evaluation

Valdecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, produces serious side effects when given orally. This has led to its withdrawal. Topical application of valdecoxib was formulated and evaluated for its efficacy and safety. Standard procedures were followed and male Wistar albino rats were used to test the anti-inflammatory effect and effect in hyperalgesic conditions. Ointments, creams, and gels containing valdecoxib 1% (m/m) were prepared. These were tested for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, drug content uniformity, in vitro diffusion. Gel prepared using Carbopol 940 (F-X) was selected after the analysis of the results. Formulation F-X was evaluated for acute skin irritancy, anti-inflammatory effect, optimum effective concentration of valdecoxib, effect on hyperalgesia, inhibition of the granulation tissue formation and anti-arthritic effect. Determination of valdecoxib in test animals plasma and determining the blood clotting time and bleeding time were conducted to study the safety of topical valdecoxib. Valdecoxib gel containing 1% (m/m) of the drug was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective in inhibiting hyperalgesia associated with inflammation, compared to placebo gel, but exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower suppression of inflammation than commercial rofecoxib gel. Concentration of valdecoxib used in the preparation minimizes the risk of systemic effects, as shown by the analysis of rat plasma for the presence of valdecoxib; hence, this may be the alternative to oral preparations. The bleeding and clotting time showed no significant difference before and after application of F-X.

Open access

Ganesh Rajput, Falguni Majmudar and Jayvadan Patel

Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive glipizide films

Glipizide is mainly absorbed in the proximal areas of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive films to prolong the stay of drug in its absorption area. Glipizide was formulated in a mucoadhesive film that could be retained in the stomach for prolonged intervals. Polymeric films were designed with various compositions of hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). Properties of the mucoadhesive film such as tensile strength, percentage elongation, swelling index, moisture content, pH and viscosity of polymeric dispersion, film thickness, content uniformity and mucoadhesion in a simulated gastric environment were characterized. In addition, percentage drug retained in stomach mucosa was estimated using a simulated dynamic stomach system as a function of time. Increase in hydroxypropyl cellulose concentration resulted in a higher tensile strength and elongation at break, while increase in concentration of PEG 400 was reflected in a decrease in tensile strength and increase of elongation at break. Glipizide/hydroxypropyl cellulose/PEG 400 (2.5:1:0.5) (GF5) was found to be the optimal composition for a novel mucoadhesive stomach formulation that showed good peelability, relatively high swelling index, moderate tensile strength, and stayed on rat stomach mucosa up to 8 h. In vivo testing of the mucoadhesive films with glipizide demonstrated a potential hypoglycemic effect.

Open access

Dubravko Habek


U radu je kroz primjere iz povijesnih izvora dan povijesni pregled razvoja sudske medicine i mrtvozorstva u gradu Bjelovaru u protekla dva stoljeća. Razvoj sudske medicine i mrtvozorstva u kontekstu javnoga zdravstva bio je ozakonjen brojnim pravilnicima, među kojima i javnozdravstvenom uredbom Normativum Sanitatum, koja se primjenjivala u svim dijelovima tadašnje carevine Habsburške Monarhije, pa tako i u gradu Bjelovaru od njegova osnutka. Mrtvozorstva su obavljali liječnici, kirurzi i laici za koje su postojale posebne upute, od kojih je u bjelovarskom kraju poznata javnozdravstvena knjižica Vilima pl. Peičića, županijskoga fizika iz Bjelovara iz 1914. godine. Sudskomedicinske obdukcije obavljali su kirurzi, primarni ili sekundarni bolnički liječnici u slučaju iznenadnih ili sumnjivih smrti u bolnici, a izvanbolničke sudske obdukcije obavljali su županijski ili gradski fizici te kotarski liječnici na zahtjev istražnih ustanova (policije, suda, državnoga odvjetništva).

Ovaj je povijesni pregled osnova za nastavak daljnjih medikohistoriografskih istraživanja u Hrvatskoj, kojima bi se trebao dobiti cjeloviti uvid razvoja sudske medicine i mrtvozorstva kao dviju struka koje su važan segment u djelovanju javnoga zdravstva.

Open access

Konstantinos Agaliotis and Miroljub Hadžić


The рurрοѕe οf any eсοnοmiс-based aсtivitу is the creation of needs. As the financial activities are not an exception to this rule, understanding clients’ necessities and their satisfaction is of primary concern for all financial institutions. Being conversant with the exact details that constitute client behaviour and the processes that lead to particular decisions, has become an advantage for financial institutions investing resources in it. Finally, it will not only pay off by satisfying the clients’ needs, but it will also secure a long-standing loyalty and relationships with them. As all relationships, the one between the client and the bank requires support and mutual understanding.

Given the Serbian retail banking market, we may conclude the following: firstly, there is still potential for doing business in this filed; secondly, the particular segments of customers would accept new products; and thirdly, banks have to focus on the highest ranking clients concerning their credit worthiness. As regards the client behaviour over different product offerings, we can conclude that cash loans and credit card holders are not price sensitive, and that subsequently, the existing holders intend to increase their credit exposure.

Open access

Andraž Šmon, Urh Grošelj, Mojca Žerjav Tanšek, Ajda Biček, Adrijana Oblak, Mirjana Zupančič, Ciril Kržišnik, Barbka Repič Lampret, Simona Murko, Sergej Hojker and Tadej Battelino


Introduction. Newborn screening in whole Slovenia started in 1979 with screening for phenylketonuria (PKU). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was added into the programme in 1981. The aim of this study was to analyse the data of neonatal screening in Slovenia from 1993 to 2012 for PKU, and from 1991 to 2012 for CH.

Methods. Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns between the third and the fifth day after birth. Fluorometric method was used for screening for PKU, CH screening was done by dissociationenhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA).

Results. From 1993 to 2012, from 385,831 newborns 57 were identified with PKU. 184 newborns out of 427,396 screened from 1991 to 2012, were confirmed for CH. Incidences of PKU and CH in the periods stated are 1:6769 and 1:2323, respectively.

Conclusions. Successful implementation of newborn screening for PKU and CH has helped in preventing serious disabilities of the affected children. Adding screening for new metabolic diseases in the future would be beneficial.