Bengt-Åke, L, Johnson, B. Sloth Andersen, B. Dalum, B (2002) National systems of production, innovation and competence building. ELSEVIER. Research Policy 31 (2002), 213-231
Boardman, C., Gray, D. (2010). The new science and engineering management: cooperative research centers as government policies, industry strategies, and organizations. Journal of Technology Transfer 35, 445-459.
Brännback, M., Carsrud, A., Krueger, N., Elfving, J. (2008). Challenging the Triple Helix model of regional innovation
Given the intensification of the regional economic integration, innovations in the digital technology and transportation infrastructure, the business environment has become highly globalized. In the globalized marketplace, there is one tool that helps countries distinguish themselves, namely nation branding. Nation branding plays a crucial role in attracting investments, boosting exports and increasing the number of tourists and foreigners (workforce and investors alike). Having in mind the importance of understanding the course of history’s new challenges and opportunities, posed by the increased internationalization of the marketplace, the paper looks into efforts made by some European countries in nation branding. An adequate policy of nation branding becomes even more important for certain countries that have passed through important political transitions. Enacting coherent and comprehensive nation brands is essential for the benefit of such transitions. The study explores European countries who transitioned form state-dominated to market economies. As a result, their branding strategies had to be consolidated, while being confronted with important political gambits. The processes undertaken in the quest for nation and place branding and the challenges met by these countries represent the focal point of the analysis. This study overviews the salient challenges, together with inherent mistakes in the attempt of nation branding, at the same time with highlighting the positive facets of the process. Branding countries in the part of Europe that has been shaken by political transitions has been evolving for more than two decades and their practices allows us to pinpoint communalities, challenges and paradigms of nation branding in Europe.
The global economic system is facing multiple challenges in terms of social development, technology and innovation, as well as sustainability needs. As a result, the value of existing assets is changing globally depending on the scarcity, necessity and effects on the business field leading to increased prices of traditional sources of energy and increased competition in the economic field. Thus, the EU energy market has progressed in reducing its dependence on external energy sourcing, by increasing production of renewable energy, such as wind or solar, as well as by further integration of the electric grid. Based on the Pearson coefficient this article intends to research the correlations between the economic, energy and house prices in recent years and the future possible impacts depending on their evolution. For example, gas prices in the past decade increasing household costs in most countries due to the dependence on third parties for energy, lead to the need of increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption, which have consequently decreased electricity prices since 2008. However, this development has still not solved the additional costs issue of households due to the new technologies implemented although wind and solar energy receive in general low margins. Such energy issues, as well as the increased housing prices after the financial crisis in 2008 have caused on their own an additional burden on the economy and households spending income in the next years following.
Recently, digital marketing mix is developing very interesting new features, because of the market dynamics, IT fast development, and globalization phenomena. The old paradigm still base on 4Ps model (product, price, promotion, and place). This research develops a theoretical framework specifically for marketing mix. Starting from a literature review regarding the 4 Ps in marketing and studying the new generation (Z) features, it can be drawn new directions on digital marketing mix, such us people, process, perseverance (other 3P). In the same time the environmental changes urge us to develop and implement new strategies in marketing as to get sustainable eco-innovation. Thus the green marketing (1G) is an important factor in the marketing mix, in raising the awareness on new politics and good practices for protecting the environment. The article brings a new paradigm for marketing mix: 7P+1G, and validate the model by unit root test. A forecast, regarding green marketing, is made with the What-If analysis.
ACATTECH (2013). Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industrie 4.0, German National Academy of Science and Engineering
Amit, R. and Zott, C. (2012). Creating value through business model innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(3), 41-49.
Arnold, Christian. (2017). The Industrial Internet of Things from a Management Perspective: A Systematic Review of Current Literature. Journal of Emerging Trends in Marketing and Management, 1 (1), 8-21.
Bagheri, B., Yang, S
Our approach, in this paper, is focused on life-long learning tools that are available for young Romanian entrepreneurs, in their early career stages. Life-long learning in the case of entrepreneurs is not a topic widely covered in scientific literature up to this moment. Most of the scientific papers related to entrepreneurship focus on the idea of innovation and creativity that characterizes entrepreneurship. On the other side, the scientific literature that considers life-long learning, discusses the case of employees or managers, who are required to improve their knowledge and skills in order to perform at the work place. For the current paper, it was aimed to survey the lifelong learning tools available to young Romanian people and to evaluate their efficiency with the help of interviews with young entrepreneurs on their educational path. Otherwise stated, we intended to provide more insights on the learning methods and practices of entrepreneurs, and to establish whether the current formal education represents a strong basis for entrepreneurs’ life-long learning. The research that we performed revealed that young Romanian entrepreneurs practice indeed a lifelong learning based not as much on formal education, as on learning by practicing and networking. Starting from the observations obtained, it was conceived, based on current European best practices and projective discussions with the same young entrepreneurs, a set of life-long learning initiatives that may be promoted in the entrepreneurial community, and we identify the actual steps to be taken by life-long learning education providers in order to implement these initiatives. This paper’s conclusions serve as both a state of the art analysis, in a field which is vital for entrepreneurs surviving in competitive environments, and as a prospective guide for improving the present market of life-long learning programs.
This paper contributes to the research on entrepreneurship in rural areas by focusing on the absorption and investment plans developed with European Funds and implemented in Romania in 2007-2013 for rural development. Entrepreneurship in the European Union is seen as the solution for creating and increasing jobs number, developing new business models, and is related very often with creativity and innovation. Moreover, entrepreneurship is directly linked to the economic performance of regions (Audretsch, D.B., Keilbach, M., 2005), poverty reduction and contributes to the economic advancement of rural communities. The focus on rural areas is given by the fact that almost half of the Romanian population lives in villages or communes (around 45%), and the main income source comes from agriculture. In the same time, there is an important potential for entrepreneurial projects because rural areas are high underdeveloped, there is a lack of services in major fields as education, social services, entertainment etc. Also, we find a high potential in tourism, especially in ecological, adventure or agro-tourism. We develop a theoretical framework to discuss the potential impact of EU Funds on rural development, the access to public funds for rural population, their readiness for business ownership, the most accessible fields for starting a business and regional variables. Our study is based on public data and official reports on the European Funds received by Romania in the budgetary period of 2007-2013 and other market data that round the entrepreneurship frame in rural areas. We analyze the number of start-ups financed by European funds, type and size of enterprises, number of jobs and reasons for contract cancellation. We find that regions with a reach cultural heritage and closer to the Western border have registered more applications and are more interested in self-employment, but also that given the administrative barriers many entrepreneurs decided to cancel the contracts.
The brand of a university is the result of the interaction between the vectors it uses to position itself in relation to its stakeholders. Among these, high school students who aspire to become students play a key role. The way in which the university is perceived by its main recruitment base (the high school environment) is crucial for the capacity of the university to recruit the best qualified candidates. Considering there is a lack of a coherent project by either the higher education system or the secondary education system that looks into the high school students’ choice of an educational trajectory, there is a need for in-depth research about the motivational mechanism that drives future students to opt for a certain university. In order to fill this gap, the present study aims to research the vectors that drive the high school students’ choice of a university programme. It is a quantitative, sample research conducted on high school students in the last year of their programme, in representative high schools in one of the districts of Bucharest. The method used is the survey, the technique is that of face-to-face interviews, and the instrument used was the semi-structured questionnaire. The second research is an exploratory qualitative study conducted on the class tutors of the high school students; its purpose is to describe, with the help of some hypotheses, their preoccupations throughout the pedagogical process of career orientation. By changing the perception of the academic environment, this can help promote social cohesion and a synergy between the processes of accumulating knowledge and those of stimulating creativity and innovation in the university environment. The present study aims to contribute to this project and is based on the literature that reflects the experience of some of the most important schools in the international context, as far as the recruitment of future students is concerned.
Madalina Mirela Radulescu, Valentina Mihaela Ghinea and Ramona Cantaragiu
Diversity, sustainability and change are words nowadays commonly encountered in business practice and theory. Businesses face multiple challenges in regards to complexity, innovation, creativity, digitalization and out of the box thinking. However, what underlies these challenges is dealing with a very diverse workforce comprised of multiple generations with very different takes in regards to employment, career development, team work, authority and many other organizational aspects. Basically, business continuity nowadays depends in a large degree on the ability to manage the workforce comprised of employees belonging to the Silents, the Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y, and to prepare for the entrance on the labor market of Generation Z, the first generation that grew up in the digital world. Classification into generations is not without its contestations, but it continues nonetheless to be an important determinant of the way in which businesses design their human resources strategies. Based on a quantitative survey of the opinions of employees from various backgrounds in regards to intergenerational dynamics and conflicts, the present research uncovers the relevancy of the classification into generations for the human resources practices. The research also provides an insight into the main challenges that arise from the existence of differences in the points of view of these four main generations and concludes with a series of recommendations for human resources managers and leaders in general. The article’s innovativeness lies in the fact that it emphasizes the need for the development of human resources strategies which take in consideration all the generations in an equal manner, thus criticizing the current trends in human resources practice which rely on the development of programs specifically targeted to certain generations.
Researchers predict that, in the next decade, significant changes will dominate the labor market. On the on hand, new jobs will be created by employers, while others will be displaced. The World Economic Forum recently estimated that 65% of the children entering primary school today will work in completely new jobs when they will enter the labor market, while many in-demand occupations or specialties are less than 10 years old. Employers start to have as a major objective to increase labor productivity, and innovation. They look for new skills, that are scarce, willing to attract, engage and retain in their organizations people that demonstrate attitudes like resilience, responsiveness to change, entrepreneurial mindset, willingness to innovate. While corporations, in their attempt to increase productivity, restructure and lay off people, entrepreneurship becomes a hope for a better living. On the other hand, the human resources market will start soon to be dominated by millennials, having to work together with people from X generation, who will retire later or not at all. Women will be more and more present in the labor force, as well as immigrants. All these phenomena will change the characteristics of the working places. In the digital world, the border between the work life and the professional life will become blurred. Wellbeing, meant at enhancing both professional and personal life, will be crucial. HR departments and leaders will have new challenges. In this paper, based on relevant literature review, attempts to identify challenging changes encountered in the labor markets, as well as actions that might improve knowledge, skills, and attitudes, necessary in the present society. Another goal is to create a model depicting the factors and flows that motivate, satisfy, and engage employees. The paper might be of interest for government, educators, training providers, employers, and workers.