Usability of high porosity ceramics for the separation of oily impurities
Organic impurities fallen to the ground water and to surface waters (rivers, lakes, seas and oceans) contribute to the degradation of the fauna and flora. Taking into account the public welfare, as the natural environment is, studies have been undertaken to develop a cheap and effective system for the purification of water from finely dispersed petroleum derivatives. The idea of the solution proposed consists in using a separator with high porosity ceramics of the pore size up to 100 ¨m, of high water permeability and ability to separate oily impurities of very tiny particle size. To improve the efficiency of the process the affinity of the filtering surface to organic particles was increased by the use of water-repellent media. The process of the separation of oily impurities was enhanced by means of ultrasounds of the 18 kHz frequency and various vibration energies.
Solid inorganic peroxy compounds in environmental protection
The paper presents a solid inorganic peroxy compounds description (calcium peroxide, magnesium peroxide and sodium percarbonate) focused on the properties and environmental application, particularly for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenols in soil environment. Modern technological processes require the use of compounds that are safe for the environment, non-toxic, easily degradable to the products, which themselves have no adverse environmental effect. Peroxides, as the chemical compounds, produce an effect on the enzymatic activity of the environment into which they are introduced. A good indicator of the activity of soil, bottom sediment or activated sludge, may be the dehydrogenase activity, which is a reflection of the general physiological state of microorganisms. Peroxides can be applied both in a pure form, as well as in mixtures with certain other groups of compounds. To enhance their efficiency they can be mixed with nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium carrying compounds.
The mineral biotechnologies, the domain of which is primary raw material processing, are increasingly diversifying into some metallurgical areas. The presented results of the research carried out with metallurgical wastes from aluminium production, lead waste remaking and desulphurization zinc-ferrite-based sorbents regeneration prove the possibility of the use of bio-chemical methods. The results obtained and the proposed technologies applying bio-chemical processes enable a complex processing and use of waste sludge from aluminium production and the use of wastes from matte-based copper production for the production of hematite pigments. The use of microorganisms in the desulphurization sorbent regeneration processes allows to increase sorbent's efficiency and its repeated recycling.
Preparations and production technologies of cleansing milks based on cenosphere obtained from flying ashes
Application of cenosphere obtained from flying ashes as effective abrasive for cleansing milks was analyzed in the paper. Preparations and production technology of ten milks with various contents of cenosphere (from 2% to 20%) were designed. The products were tested to determine their most important usable properties. The efficiency of application and dispersion, cleansing ability, ability to emulsify fatty soils and destructing activity, measured as polish of surfaces, were analyzed. Selected trade products were tested analogously. The results obtained show that cenosphere can be a good replacement of abrasives that are widely used. The cenosphere-based products revealed comparable usable properties to the trade products (or even better). It is probable that producers of cleansers will pay their attention to this waste, which will bring profits to the natural environment.
The objective of the present study is to assess the efficiency of fly ash and fly ash agglomerates to remove arsenic(III) from aqueous solution. The maximum static uptakes were achieved to be 13.5 and 5.7 mgAs(III)/adsorbent for nonagglomerated material and agglomerated one, respectively. Isotherm studies showed good fit with the Langmuir (fly ash) and the Freundlich (fly ash agglomerates) isotherm models. Kinetic studies indicated that the sorption of arsenic on fly ash and its agglomerates follows the pseudo-second-order (PSO) chemisorption model (R2 = 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters revealed an endothermic nature of As(III) adsorption on such adsorbents. The adsorption results confirmed that fly ash and its agglomerates can be used for As(III) removal from aqueous solutions. Fly ash can adsorb more arsenic(III) than agglomerates, which are easier to use, because this material is less dusty and easier to separate from solution.
This study examined the interaction of solid nanoparticles and anionic and non-ionic surfactant at an air–water interface. Aqueous foams stabilized by silica nanoparticles in water with different levels of salinity were studied in detail. The stability of solid/surfactant dispersion was evaluated visually. Nanoparticles content impact and concentration of surfactant on the foamability, deliquification of foams and structure of wet foams were studied. It was found that the foamability of dispersion depends either on the surfactant concentration or on the nanoparticles concentration. The adsorption of hydrophobically modified silica particles and surfactants reduces the air/water interface tension. The results of the examinations showed that the use of nanoparticles allows to increase the efficiency of brine unloading even up to 20%. Surfactant particle and nanosilica present synergistic action, use of 4 wt% of nanoparticles allows to reduce surfactant consumption up to half. The cost of the preparation of the proposed dispersion is slightly higher, about 5%, compared to the sole surfactant.
Separation of volatile compounds from fermentation broth by membrane distillation
The diluted ethanol solutions and fermentation broth (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were separated by membrane distillation (MD). Hydrophobic macroporous (pore size 0.2 μm) capillary polypropylene membranes, Accurel PP V8/2 HF and Accurel PP S6/2, were used for these studies. The MD process can be successfully applied to remove the volatile components from the fermentation broth. Besides ethanol, propionic and acetic acids were moved from the broth to the distillate. Therefore, the course of the fermentation carried out in a membrane distillation bioreactor considerably accelerate its rate and increase the efficiency by a selective removal of fermentation products. It was found that the broth subjected to the separation did not affect the hydrophobic properties of the polypropylene membrane assembled in the MD modules.
The efficiency of walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells to remove three monochlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP and 4-CP) from aqueous solutions has been investigated. To describe the kinetic data pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models were used. The kinetics data were fitted better into the pseudo-second order model with the coefficient of determination values greater than 0.99. The k2 values increased in the order 4-CP < 3-CP < 2-CP. Sorption was also analyzed as a function of solution concentration at equilibrium. The experimental data received were found to be well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. Effectiveness of chlorophenols removal from water on the walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells was comparable. Individual differences in sorption of monochlorophenols were also negligible.
Methane fermentation of poultry slaughterhouse waste
One of the alternative methods for the treatment of animal by-products is their utilization in biological processes with a simultaneous production of energy-rich biogas. The results of the investigations of methane fermentation of animal waste are discussed in the study. The methane fermentation was carried out at 35°C. The substrates used in the experiments included poultry heads and muscle tissue. Furthermore, the fermentation residues subjected previously to hydrothermal processing were used as a substrate. The suspension of those substrates in the initial concentration range from 1 g TOC/dm3 to 11 g TOC/dm3 was used in the process. Additionally, the effect of the preliminary stage of hydrothermal substrate processing on methane fermentation efficiency was assessed. Poultry waste was subjected to thermohydrolysis at the temperature from 100°C to 300°C and pressure up to 9.0 MPa. The efficiency of the methane fermentation was estimated on the basis of biogas generated in the process. The biogas production was between 0.17 Ndm3/g TOC and 1.53 Ndm3/g TOC. In the case of poultry heads, a beneficial impact of hydrothermal processing at the temperatures from 100°C to 175°C was confirmed. For poultry meat the preliminary thermohydrolysis brought about a decrease of methane fraction in the biogas evolved. The preliminary hydrothermal processing made it possible to meet the requirements of legal regulations for the hygienization of by-products of animal origin. The obtained results allowed us to identify conditions under which the methane fermentation was carried out and which ensured a high level of methanization.
The aim of the present work is to study the efficiency of a biocompatible polymer-based adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) ions whose devastating effects on people’s health is a matter of great concern from aqueous solution. In this study, ethyl cellulose and gamma-Al2O3 nanoparticles/ethyl cellulose electrospun adsorbents were prepared for the batch removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution. Both samples were characterized using contact angle analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption technique, FT-IR and SEM. The Freundlich model (R-square = 0.935 and RMSD (%) = 6.659) and the Dubinin-Radushkevich model (R-square = 0.944 and RMSD (%) = 6.145) were found to be more reliable in predicting the experimental data from the adsorption of Pb (II) ions onto the electrospun gamma-Al2O3 nanoparticles/ethyl cellulose than the Langmuir model (R-square = 0.685 and RMSD (%) = 14.61) and also the Temkin model (R-square = 0.695 and RMSD (%) = 14.38).