Hybrid vehicles history begins between XIX and XX century because then has been constructed first hybrid vehicle project. The first men who produced electric propulsion mounted in front hubs connected with generator powered by spark ignition engine was Ferdynand Porsche. Vehicle was called Lohner – Porsche Electromobile. The first en masse produced hybrid vehicle was the first generation Toyota Prius. These model premiere was in 1996, and production started one year later. Vehicle was equipped in 1,5 dcm 58 hp spark ignition engine with added electric propulsion generated 40 mechanical hp. There has been mounting 72 hp spark ignition engine and 44 hp electric generator since 2000. Fuel consumption of these model was 5 liter on 100 km. Beginning XXI century 95% hybrid vehicles were Toyota Prius. The biggest competitor of Toyota Prius was Honda Insight. Lexus and Mercedes started producing hybrid vehicles few years later. The most popular brands selling hybrid vehicles are Toyota and Lexus – Toyota Motor Corporation.
Article describes high voltage battery example diagnostic possibilities in a hybrid or electric vehicle. Constructing vehicle models using two propulsion systems (spark ignition engine and electric generator) cause development and increase control system devices. The measurements has been made by using various diagnostic devices for example: diagnostic scanner mega macs 66, high voltage battery tester. Reading faults code is not enough so it is necessary to use data list what describes this article.
Dariusz Ćwik, Ewelina Olkowska and Mirosław Kowalski
The article presents the possibilities of advance development of detailed organization-technical plans for the repair of Highway Strips, which will enable their effective use, particularly during combat operations – while maintaining the required time and technical standards at the same time. The main objectives of Highway Strips were presented; their role in securing military aviation activities and historical conditions for their creation. The concept of HS (Highway Strip) was defined along with the modern principles for their construction, modernization and renovation. Based on a selected example, the principles for evaluating the technical condition of their pavement and the repair possibility assessment were presented. At the same time, typical damage to HSs and factors affecting such damage were presented. Next, the methods and technologies for repairing various types of bituminous pavement damage repairs were discussed, with particular emphasis on the methods of repairing cracks, surface damage, deep damage and asphalt renovation. A schedule for the “Wielbark” highway strip was also developed, and the necessary calculations of the repair times, as well as the resources and resources for securing these operations were made. The article is concluded with a short summary and a proposal for further work, aimed at inhibiting the destructive processes of Highway Strips in Poland.
The article presents a mathematical model of a permanent magnet motor, powered by a three-phase source of sinusoidal voltage, and a control method. Cooperation between numerical integration algorithms in the differential equation system of the motor and an inverter has been verified. The results of numerical simulations are presented in a graphic form. This article is an extension of the publication , in which a model of a drive system was proposed, consisting of: a battery, a supercapacitor and a method of controlling these energy sources during a driving cycle of a vehicle. For vector control, the mathematical model of a synchronous machine in the dq coordinate system is the most common one. The most important feature of this control method is the fact that the iq component of the rotor current vector determines the value of motor torque, and the component id – the value of magnetic flux. In the article, the emphasis is put on how inverters work. Their basic task is to generate such currents iabc or voltages uabc to obtain torque without ripples. It leads to development of different control concepts for achieving this goal, which are related to the modelling of magnetic fluxes in a stator and in an inverter.
Increased interest in development of alternative fuels used to power combustion engines is caused by excessive use of fuels obtained from mineral sources. Depletion of resources, political aspects as well as the negative impact on the environment are commonly discussed issues in relation to fossil fuels. On the other hand, biodegradability, lower toxic components emissions and interchangeability with mineral fuels are commonly described benefits related to biodiesel, interpreted as fatty acid methyl esters obtained from fatty raw material. Also the multiplicity of raw materials that can be used for production promotes popularization of the biodiesel. However the variety of raw materials can have significant impact on the number of physicochemical properties of alternative fuels due to the differences in molecular structures forming given type of raw material.
The article presents analysis of properties of different types of biodiesel and its mixtures with diesel according to the outlines presented in the quality standards for mineral and alternative fuels. Alternative fuels were produced in the laboratory setup from swine, poultry, rape and sunflower fatty raw material. Such parameters as: density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, acid value, oxidation stability, cold filter plugging point, sulphur content, water content and total contamination were examined, based on the results, the quality of the biofuels was evaluated. Study confirms that biofuels derived from plant origin fatty raw material present favorable results in the aspect water content, total contamination, acid value and cold flow properties, thus biofuels derived from animal origin raw fatty material presents lower density and sulphur content.
The article describes possibilities of application of friction stir welding (FSW) in shipbuilding and railway industry. Actually, in these sectors of industry more and more often modern construction materials are used. The biggest restriction of implementing new materials is technological possibility of joining them. One of construction materials used in the shipbuilding is aluminum, mainly its alloy of 5xxx-aluminium-magnesium series. Its application is justified by good corrosion resistance in seawater and good mechanical attributes. Thanks to susceptibility to plastic treatment, one gains good mechanical attributes with thrice-smaller density than a density of steel, what causes triple reduction of weight of aluminum construction relative to steel one. Alloys of 5xxx series are well weldable. It is generally known that welding is not a good way to joint metals, especially the aluminum. The application of FSW with mixing allows one to change approach to production of aluminum constructions. Using aluminum plates prefabricated with FSW method allows one to reduce time needed for installation of construction and considerably decreases the production costs. The article describes technology and directions of development of friction welding of aluminum alloys of 5xxx series using FSW method. There is also shown analysis of its usefulness in ship and railway industry and comparison of mechanical attributes of weld made with electric arc using MIG (135), TIG (141) method and FSW method.
Zbigniew Otremba, Eugeniusz Andrulewicz and Magdalena Jakubowska
Large demand for energy results in necessity for its transportation in various ways. On land areas, energy media transfer consists mainly of transport in tanks by rail, road or river routs as well as pipeline systems for liquid or gasified hydrocarbons. A part of energy media in the world is electric energy flowing though metallic conductors of overhead and cable networks.
If sea areas are considered, ship navigation routs crosses with pipelines and electrical energy transfer systems. Furthermore, every transport system can interfere with other. Marine areas occupied by pipelines and submarine cables must be excluded from use of anchors and bottom fishing gear. On the other hand, pipeline systems interfere with the free development of navigation, particularly in areas near ports. Power transfer systems modify the natural force fields in the water column, surface water and even in near-water layer of atmosphere.
In this article, we show the main ways of transferring electricity in the sea and the resulting modifications of physical fields: electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic ones. We also discuss the probable impact of modifications of natural fields on ship traffic as well as corrosion of hulls of ships and marine structures. The considerations presented in the article are related primarily to the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea.
The article presents vibration test of three different types of gyroplane main rotors. The test was carried out on a specially prepared test bench using a Red Led Tacho Sensor measuring system. Tests were conducted for the project „Research and development works on innovative construction of aircrafts of weight over 560 kilograms at the company Trendak Aviation”. The work outlines the basic properties of the gyroplane vibration and gives their sources. The research focused on the gyroplane main rotor vibration related inter alia to the rotor imbalance as well as rotor hub connector construction. Tested rotors consisted of three different types of gyroplane rotor blades and innovative universal hub connector with positive coning angle of 2.8º. The article summarized the basic properties of three types of gyroplane the rotor blade, marks advantages of use hub connector witch constructional dihedral angle. Discusses the principle of operation of measuring device, tests methodology starting from instrument calibration. The results of the measurements are shown in the graphs in polar coordinates. The vibration measurement is carried out in two axes, in x-axis, longitudinal, along the rotor radius and in y-axis, perpendicular to the x-axis, in the direction of the chord of the rotor blades.
Continuous monitoring of diesel engine performance under its operating is critical for prediction of malfunction development and subsequently functional failure detection. Analysis of Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) of the crankshaft is considered as one of non-intrusive and effective method of detection of combustion quality deterioration. The article contains presentation of attempt of monitoring of piston engine’s crankshaft torsional vibrations by measurement of Instantaneous Angular Speed at free, and power output ends of the engine’s crankshaft. The angular speed measurements was done using two optical sensors for reading the IAS, mounted at shaft line’s opposite ends, one at free end of the crankshaft and second at end of generator’s shaft. In the article is presented description of the measurement system and explanation of its mode of work. Experiments were based at two kinds of malfunction possible to be simulated at test bed. First one was simulation of a leak of fuel injection pump, the second one relayed on mounting of sets of injection valves with different nozzles characteristics (spraying nozzle angle), giving different parameters of fuel injection. Presented results of experiment derives from test cycle carried out using laboratory stand of Gdynia Maritime University equipped with 3- cylinder self – ignition engine, powering electric generator.
In this paper an alternative material model using a generalized J2 finite-strain flow plasticity theory with isotropic hardening is presented. The model is based on a new nonlinear continuum mechanical theory of finite deformations of elasto-plastic media which allows for the development of objective and thermodynamically consistent material models. As a result, the constitutive equation, the evolution equation and even the ‘normality rule’, characterising the plastic flow in the material during return mapping, can be expressed in various forms, using several instances of the yield surface and corresponding pairs of stress measures and strain rates, respectively, which are conjugate with respect to the internal mechanical power and its arbitrary higher order time derivative. Therefore the results of the material model when used in numerical analyses are not affected by the description and particularities of the material model formulation. Here, we briefly outline the nonlinear continuum theory along with a detailed description of the material model and finally present the model in a numerical example using a cross-shaped specimen in biaxial tension.
Jacek Czarnigowski, Piotr Jakliński, Tomasz Zyska and Jakub Klimkiewicz
The article is a review of European aviation regulations with respect to their impact on the design of a new electronic ignition system for aircraft engines. The analysis covers the EASA decision on certification specifications as well as recommended means of compliance and related standards on testing and designing electronic subassemblies and their programming. The analysis focuses on the following aspects: design requirements (system configuration), functional requirements (principles of operation), safety (fault tolerance), material requirements (with regard to corrosion and fire resistance of electronic components) and scope of tests for particular component.
The analysis is illustrated by a case of a research and development project to design and implement an ignition system for a piston engine. The engine with its new ignition system was to be offered commercially as a product of a Polish aircraft engine manufacturer.
The article is a review of European aviation regulations with respect to their impact on the design of a new electronic ignition system for aircraft engines. The analysis covers the EASA decision on certification specifications and their programming. It is illustrated by a case of a particular engine re-engineering project