The coding sequences (CDS) of TFAM and TFB2M genes from Jiaxing Black Pig (JBP) were first obtained by RT-PCR and DNA-seq in the present study. Sequence analyses showed that the TFAM gene contains a 741-bp CDS region encoding 246 amino acids sharing a 100% homology with the sequence on NCBI, while TFB2M gene contains a CDS region of 1176 bp encoding 391 amino acids with two missense mutations. The results of quantitative Real-Time PCR for TFAM and TFB2M revealed that transcripts of the genes were both presented at the highest levels in spleen tissue followed by liver tissue, while the least levels in longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), and obviously the higher levels in two adipose tissues than those in LDM tissue (P<0.01). Meanwhile, a total of forty-two JBPs were employed in this experiment to investigate the effect of these two genes on the carcass, meat quality traits and flavor substances such as fatty acids, intramuscular fat (IMF) in LDM. As expected, some strong correlations of gene expression abundance of TFAM and TFB2M mRNA in particular tissues such as liver and LDM with carcass and meat quality traits including marbling score, as well as the content of saturated fatty acid (SFA), in JBP were found.
Quilchano C., Maranón T. 2002. Dehydrogenase activity in Mediterranean forest soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35, 102-107.
Salazar S., Sánchez L.E., Alvarez J., Valverde A., Galindo P., Igual J.M., Peix A., Santa-Regina I. 2011. Correlation among soil enzyme activities under different forest system management practices. Ecological Engineering, 37, 1123-1131.
Tao J., Griffiths B., Zhang S., Chen X., Liu M., Hu F., Li H. 2009. Effects of earthworms on soil enzyme activity in an organic residue amended rice-wheat rotation agro
świerka pospolitego (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) w rocznym cyklu przyrostowym proweniencji objętych doświadczeniem IPTNS-IUFRO 1964/68 w Krynicy. Acta Agraria et Silvestria, 23, 53-69.
Sabor J. 1989. The age x age of spring flushing correlation and the selection of resistant to spring frost Norway spruce provenances of IPTNS-IUFRO 1964/68 experiment in Krynica In: Norway spruce provenances, breeding and genetic conservation (eds.: L.G. Stener, M. Werner). The Institute for Forest Improvement, Uppsala, Rep. 11, 142-152.
Sabor J. 1998
Water repellency in soils is controlled by many different factors, basic physical and chemical properties might be considered the crucial ones. For the purpose of this study, 12 sites were selected and sampled (0–20 cm depth) in the White Carpathians. Repellency tests were conducted under laboratory conditions in triplicate using water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) test. Results of WDPT measurements showed that three samples were marked by slight to extreme water repellency. Regarding the relationship between WDPT/MED and tested soil properties, the highest value of correlation coefficient was calculated for soil organic carbon (r = 0.706; p < 0.05), suggesting there is a positive, statistically significant correlation between repellency severity and total carbon content. A negative relationship between repellency and soil reaction/silt/silt + clay contents of studied soils was found. Samples taken from the surface horizon of arable soils showed no repellency.
Marcin Pietrzykowski, Wojciech Krzaklewski, Justyna Likus and Bartłomiej Woś
This study presents selected tree stand features and stand productivity of the English oak (Quercus robur L.) growing in the conditions of a reclaimed external dump of Piaseczno sulfur mine in Tarnobrzeg mining area. Following 40 years of growth in the dump, the oak trees reached first and second bonitation class and good growth parameters. The oak obtained the highest stand volume and basal area on sandy soils and loamy-sand substrates. A significant negative correlation between high clay content in soil cores and tree stand parameters was observed, indicating unfavourable impact on tree growth. The results confirmed the usefulness of the English oak as the main (target) species in the conditions of sulfur dumps, and the suitability of its introduction with preliminary identification of micro-habitat differentiation.
Nenad Keča, Ioannis Koufakis, Jana Dietershagen, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Tomasz Oszako
The complex phenomenon of decline in European oak is currently triggered by changing climatic conditions and their consequences like heavy rains, local floods and pest development. Especially, pathogens from Phytophthora genus profit from soil saturation with water. They are alien invasive species, which attack and severely damage fine roots. In drought conditions occurring in the subsequent year, many oaks die as they encounter problem with water uptake. Additionally, insect defoliators followed by oak mildew infections accelerate the level of tree mortality. Secondary insects, butt and root pathogens are usually the final cause of death of many oaks. More research is needed in the direction to determine (i) measurable factors (e.g. chlorophyll florescence) that can indicate that the process of tree decline has already started, (ii) the correlation between the root decay and the crown symptoms (scanners, software), (iii) which combination of stressors stimulate the best development of pathogens that lead to the high plant mortality and (iv) the difference between the mortality caused by the native and the invasive Phytophthora species.
The purpose of the present study was to convey to the reader the method and application of the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI) that was devised in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The study area concerned is Stołowe Mountains National Park, which is located in the south-western Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic. To accomplish the above mentioned aim, the following data have been applied: timber volume derived from field sample plots, satellite image, digital map data and digital elevation model. The Pearson correlation coefficient between independent and dependent variables has been verified. Furthermore, the non-parametric k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) technique and genetic algorithm have been used in order to estimate forest stands biomass at the pixel level. The error estimates have been obtained by leave-one-out cross-validation method. The main computed forest stands features were total and mean timber volume as well as maximum and minimum biomass occurring in the examined area. In the final step, timber volume map of the growing stock has been created.
Marcin Warchałowski, Piotr Nowakowski and Andrzej Dancewicz
Relations between climatic factors during the winter season (n days with frost <0oC and −10oC; n days with snow cover: >1 cm, >10 cm and >30 cm; maximum snow cover during season [cm]) and mortality in free-living ungulates (red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758, roe deer Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758 and mouflon Ovis aries musimon Linnaeus, 1758) in the Owl Mountains (Lower Silesia – Poland) in years 1998–2010 were investigated. Significant effects of all analysed climatic factors on ungulates mortality were documented. Correlations (Pearson) between such weather factors as the depth of snow cover and number of days with frost and recorded mortality in total animal populations analysed ranged from r = 0.33 to r = 0.77. The least adapted to local weather conditions was mouflon introduced to this area ca. 100 years ago from more southern parts of Europe. Roe deer species seems to be environmentally plastic, and are doing quite well in severe winters. Tolerance of red deer to the snow cover is much lower at low temperatures due to the fact that this species, during the period of snow cover, has limited access to the plants covered with snow and difficult access to food base.
Mohammad Rasoul Nazari Sendi, Iraj Hassanzad Navroodi, Hassan Poorbabaei, Mohammad Sheikhkanlu Milan and Behzad Bakhshandeh
The lime tree is one of the rare and valuable species that found in the Hyrcanian moist forests with economic as well as ecological value. Identification of the quantitative and qualitative features of this species is important. In order to investigate the stem form of this species in the Shafaroud forests of Guilan Province, 141 lime trees in 39 plots were analyzed during the four stages of small pole, pole, saw-timber, and maturity. In each plot, stem-diameter at different heights was measured by using the Spiegel Relaskop. Measurements and analyses included diameter at breast height( d.b.h.) and total height. Same parameters was calculated: stem form factor based on diameter, stem form factor based on volume, form quotient, slenderness factor, ratio of stem height to total height, ratio of stem volume to total volume, correlation, and coefficient of determination to describe stem form factor. The results showed that the average stem form factor based on diameter was 0.554. The average stem form factor based on volume was 0.576, average form quotient was 2.32 and slenderness factor was 35.04%. The average ratio of stem height to total height was 82.45. In addition the results indicated a strong relationship between diameter at breast height and trunk coefficient. The ratio of stem volume to total volume revealed that 64.44 of lime volume is located in the bottom half of the trunk. The value of the parameters described here is towards a better description of stand characteristics. Obtained results indicating stability for natural lime tree in Iran.
Fine root biomass of forest trees is a recognised indicator of environmental changes in the conditions of global climate change. The present study was carried out in six old-growth beech forests (112-140 years) located in different climatic conditions on the range border of Fagus sylvatica L. in Poland. The root biomass was investigated by soil coring method in the upper soil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and total layer 0-15 cm). The significantly greater total root biomass was found in the beech stands, which characterised by higher average precipitation and lower average annual temperatures in the period 2000-2005. The share of roots of diameter > 5 mm increased with increasing depth of top soils. Biomass of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm) decreased with increasing depth of upper soil layers. The average biomass of fine roots ranged from 175.36 to 418.16 g m-2 in the soil layer 0-15 cm. The significant differences of fine root biomass were found between studied stands in the soil layers 0-5 cm and 0-15 cm. Also, it was found significant positive correlation between fine root biomass in the soil layer 0-15 cm and precipitation during the growing season in 2006. Precipitation in the study period was connected with very high rainfall in August 2006, repeatedly exceeding the long-term monthly levels. Regional climatic conditions, in that extreme weather events in growing seasons can significantly to affect changes of fine root biomass of forest trees, consequently, changes of relationships between the growth of above- and below-ground of the old-growth forest stands.