The unique municipality structure in the Czech Republic is one of the most interesting research topics in the Czech political space. The large number of municipalities with less than 1,000 or less than 500 inhabitants causes differences between Czech municipalities. There are differences in economic factors, differences in the development of municipalities, among other. All of these differences are discussed by experts, researchers and politicians in term of the efficiency of the smallest municipalities. The term ‘efficiency’ is used as the benchmark for a successful or an unsuccessful government. This research evaluates the argument of efficiency presented by Deborah Stone (2002). This argument was applied to the case of Kraj Vysočina, one of the regions with the largest number of the smallest municipalities in the Czech Republic. We analysed the selected argument of efficiency – economies of scale. Based on our quantitative analysis we have confirmed that evaluating municipalities through the prism of the economies of scale argument is not a good measurement of the efficiency of municipal government. The argument of efficiency is more complex and we cannot view it only in economics terms.
The debate as to whether Slovak post-socialist agricultural cooperatives are cooperatives or not represents one of the focal points of their post-1989 development. The answer to this question determined and/or legitimized the rationale for the legislative framework concerning their post-socialist transformation. This analysis draws mainly on data from the parliamentary debates that preceded the enactment of three pivotal laws. In comparing the debates in 1991/1992 and 1995, the examination focuses on the shift in the argumentation put forward by representatives speaking on behalf of cooperative farms. A dramatic shift in reasoning about the character of cooperative enterprises and appropriate voting rights is interpreted as a pragmatic, effect-oriented action. It is argued that both delicate work with the hybrid nature of post-socialist cooperative farms as well as the initial withholding of cooperative principles contributed to the preservation of the specific kinds of agricultural cooperative, and consequently also large corporate farm, which now exist in Slovakia.
 A. M. Abou-El-Ela, A. I. Sadek, A. M. Mahmoud, Existence and uniqueness of a periodic solution for third-order delay differential equation with two deviating arguments, IAENG Int. J. Appl. Math., 42 (1), IJMA−42−1−02 2012.
 A. T. Ademola, P. O. Arawomo, Uniform stability and boundedness of solutions of nonlinear delay differential equations of the third order, Math. J. Okayama Univ. 55 (2013), 157-166.
 A. T. Ademola, P. O. Arawomo, M. O. Ogunlaran, E. A. Oyekan, Uniform stability
Perception, Processing and Storage of Subphonemic and Extralinguistic Features in Spoken Word Recognition - An Argument from Language Variation and Change
Recent research on speech perception and word recognition has shown that fine-grained sub-phonemic as well as speaker- and episode-specific characteristics of a speech signal are integrally connected with segmental (phonemic) information; they are all most probably processed in a non-distinct manner, and stored in the lexical memory. This view contrasts with the traditional approach holding that we operate on abstract phonemic representations extracted from a particular acoustic signal, without the need to process and store the multitude of its individual features. In the paper, I want to show that this turn towards the "particulars" of a speech event was in fact quite predictable, and the so-called traditional view would most probably have never been formulated if studies on language variation and language change-in-progress had been taken into account when constructing models of speech perception. In part one, I discuss briefly the traditional view ("abstract representations only"), its theoretical background, and outline some problems, internal to the speech perception theory, that the traditional view encounters. Part two will demonstrate that what we know about the implementation of sound changes has long made it possible to answer, once and for all, the question of integrated processing and storage of extralinguistic, phonemic and subphonemic characteristics of the speech signal.
BACKGROUND - Far-reaching changes in the Swedish substance abuse treatment system (SAT) were proposed by a state-commissioned inquiry in 2011. The proposal implied a break with the social tradition of SAT. It was suggested that the treatment responsibility should be transferred from the municipal social services to the regional-level health care system; and that compulsory treatment in its present form (assessed by/paid for by social services, run by the state) should be abolished and become incorporated into coercive psychiatric care provided by health care. A lively debate arose, and the vast majority of stakeholders sought to articulate their arguments. AIM - The study analysed the development of Swedish SAT by examining the policy process from reform proposal to government bill in 2013.
METHOD - Content analysis was used to analyse written comments on the proposal submitted to the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs by close to 200 stakeholders. The goal was to empirically chart and examine the arguments for and against as well as advocates and opponents of the reform. With the government bill at hand, we retrospectively sorted out the winning arguments in the now highly contested SAT field and which actors were able to influence the process.
CONCLUSIONS - The article discloses that the mixed response and rather critical voices in most groups, including social/medical professions and government bureaucracy, helped block the responsibility shifts, and that reformations of subsystems like SAT are difficult to carry out as freestanding projects within larger systems of social and health care
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6. āl-Hayṯamy, Kašf āl
The continuous increase in criminal activities in all countries, namely the offences which undermine the interests of contemporary societies, call for the need to fight them in a more successful manner. In this way, the country through its mechanisms detects the criminal offences, the criminal liability and imposes the meritorious sanction to the perpetrators of such criminal offences, in full compliance with the danger caused by them. However, the court and other parties in the proceedings (Prosecution, Lawyer, Victim’s Advocate) in any case before the sanction is imposed, are involved in a complicated evidentiary proceedings related to the grounded suspicion that such offence was a criminal offence, the special mitigating and aggravating circumstances, that the person involved was conscious, that he committed the offence intentionally or negligently, his mental state, etc. All these have to be supported by facts through conclusive pieces of evidence. In parallel with the overall development of science and technology, the evidentiary procedure has evolved and it provides a greater possibility to argue our facts. This paper shall make efforts to highlight some of the most important issues related to the evidentiary procedure, such as: What is the evidence? What evidence should be provided in a certain criminal case? What is the importance of the evidence in a criminal matter? What should be the credibility and the evidentiary value of a piece of evidence? The research done in this paper shall apply the analytical method and the paper shall also include the conclusions that were reached as well as the recommendations.
Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU) and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.