Gabriela Musat, Laura Florina Neaga and Raluca Enache
BACKGROUND. Functional connection between the stomatognathic system and the acoustic-vestibular apparatus is approached with interest in topical studies, in an attempt to elucidate in depth the cause-effect relationship between pathology and symptom. The temporomandibular joint disorder may be accompanied by a series of otological symptoms such as otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo. For this reason, for a correct diagnosis, a complex clinical examination is required both on the acousticvestibular analyzer and on neighbouring structures.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We conducted a clinical study, on a group of 97 patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and treated for this pathology. All patients included in the study were evaluated by the dentist and the ENT specialist. The patients were treated at the dental clinic and then returned to the ENT clinic two months after completion of the treatment for re-examination, recording changes in otologic symptoms in order to obtain the results of the study.
RESULTS. Of the 97 patients with TMJD, 58 also associated otic symptomatology (otalgia – 74.13%, tinnitus – 53.45%, vertigo – 43.10%). The evaluation done two months after treatment of the temporomandibular joint disorder revealed a significant remission of otalgia (decrease in Mean VAS from 6.05 to 2.49), followed by vertigo (from 5.08 to 2.52) and by tinnitus (from 4.84 to 3.84). Important changes also occurred in the results of the vestibular assessments.
CONCLUSION. The most common otological symptom of patients with TMJD is auricular pain. Otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo can be improved by dental treatment of the temporomandibular dysfunction, auricular pain having the highest rate of remission.
Ioan Alexandru Bulescu, Octavian Munteanu, Razvan Stanciulescu, Cosmin Pantu, Mihai Enyedi, Florin Filipoiu and Vlad Andrei Budu
Morphological variability of paranasal sinuses is well known for endoscopic surgeons and anatomists alike. The ethmoid sinus is the most complex and variable of all paranasal sinuses, due to the fact that its development is not yet well known and is influenced by many factors. Volumetric studies of the sinuses have been made using dried skulls, cadaver heads and imaging studies, but there are still not sufficient data in order to name a standard value for each sinus. Few data can be found especially regarding the ethmoid sinus. In this paper, we measured the volumes of ethmoid lateral masses, and for anterior and posterior groups of cells, using imaging studies and a volumetric feature of our imaging studies. Results showed an average volume between 7.34 cm3 and 8.39 cm3 for the ethmoid lateral mass, between 4.33 cm3 and 4.92 cm3 for the anterior ethmoid and between 3.01 cm3 and 3.47 cm3 for the posterior ethmoid groups. We also found that the average volume of the anterior ethmoid occupies between 58-59% of the whole volume, while the posterior ethmoid occupies only 41-42% of this volume.
In the international literature, there is no consensus on patient selection for turbinate surgery. Surgery is usually indicated to the patients on the basis of subjective complaint of nasal obstruction and surgeon´s clinical examination. Although most surgical techniques demonstrate a subjective and objective improvement in postoperative nasal airflow and subjective scores, it is hard to say which technique is best suited for treating inferior turbinate enlargement. Inferior turbinate reduction for nasal obstructive symptoms caused by enlarged turbinates is a useful procedure and is reserved for patients who are not responding to medical treatment or in whom the medical management is contraindicated.
Alex George Stanciu, Alexandra Cirticioiu and Adriana Neagos
BACKGROUND. Nowadays, snoring and obstructive sleep apnea are the most common sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) found in the medical practice and they are estimated to affect approximately 4% of men and 2% of women in the middle-aged workforce. There are some ENT pathologies that are involved in snoring, and also in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The nose plays an important part in both breathing and SRBD. The aim of this study was to determine the role of posterior rhinomanometry in the diagnoses of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present a retrospective observational study that took place during a three-year period, between 2009 and 2012. In this study were included 110 subjects, who have undergone polysomnographic investigations, as well as an ENT clinical examination focused on endoscopy and posterior rhinomanometry evaluation.
RESULTS. The mean age was 46.09 ± 10.91 years, the mean height was 177.58 ± 10.02 cm and the mean weight was 98.45 ± 17.74 kg. Analysing these results, we found a significant correlation between them and the severity of the sleep pathology. The posterior rhinomanometry results were correlated with nasal allergic rhinitis (p = 0.06) and not correlated with other nasal pathology, such as nasal septum deviation. The changes in the size and shape of the tongue base or epiglottis proved to have an important impact upon rhinomanometric values, with a statistically significant value (p = 0.03, respectively p = 0.08).
CONCLUSION. All diagnostic methods must be interpreted in connection with each other.
Andreea Grosu-Bularda, Claudiu Manea and Ioan Lascar
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) join olfactory axons in their entrance to the central nervous system, representing a unique population of glial cells with functions in olfactory neurogenesis, axonal growth and olfactory bulb formation. Olfactory ensheathing cells have a great potential to induce repair for neural injuries, in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, existing numerous experimental and clinical studies lately, reporting beneficial effects in anatomical and functional recovery. Studies are also conducted in order to establish possible pro-regenerative effects of the OECs, their potential in tissue repair and ability to modulate the immune system. The aim of this paper was to review the properties of olfactory ensheathing cells and their potential therapeutic role in regenerative medicine.
BACKGROUND. Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) has begun to be studied in detail by surgeons around the world since several decades ago from the need to verify functional integrity of the neural elements. Parotid gland surgery requires a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of this region by ENT surgeons. Also, the surgeons performing parotid surgery need to have important strategies of management which include: handiness to identify facial nerve, dissection nerve branches and application of neuromonitoring in order to preserve nerve functions.
OBJECTIVE. This study has analysed the usefulness of intraoperative continuous monitoring in superficial or in total parotidectomy. It identifies the facial nerve and reduces the risk of postoperative facial palsy. We have been using intraoperative continuous monitoring - evoked facial nerve electromyograms (EMG).
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Continuous intraoperative facial nerve monitoring was prospectively achieved in the case of three patients diagnosed with benign tumors, on which parotidectomy with the preservation of the nerve was carried out in order to highlight the value and efficacy of this method.
RESULTS. In our country, continuous intraoperative facial nerve monitoring performance is still not a common practice in ENT Departments. It revealed postoperatively that the incidence of temporary or permanent facial palsy was 0% and the minimal stimulation was obtained at levels equal to 0,5 mA, which implies integral functioning of the facial nerve.
CONCLUSION. In parotid surgery, facial nerve IONM represents the gold standard in recognition of real-time electrophysiological signals, electromyography waves and auditory signals to enable the correct approach wherever possible, avoiding extensive nerve damage. It is known the importance of continuous IONM in postoperative prognosis of the neural function and intraoperative decision making regarding the technical surgery.
Clinical entities of food allergy in allergic rhinitis patients due to IgE-sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are well described, but less data are available regarding allergic reactions to foods containing aeroallergens, either due to food contamination, such as oral mite anaphylaxis, or due to their natural presence in the edible products, such as pollen grains in honey and bee products. There are some potential risks for allergic rhinitis subjects due to ingestion of food products containing domestic mite, insect, fungal and pollen allergens. The knowledge of these risks is useful for the allergists and ENT specialists, especially in the context of climate changes with warmer periods facilitating mite growth in flours, and of increase use of phytotherapy and apitherapy products containing pollen grains.
OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the relationship between olfactory functions and Behçet’s disease (BD).
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We searched Pubmed, Google, Google Scholar and Proquest Cebtral Database with the key words of “olfactory”, “functions”, “smell”, “nasal” and “Behçet’s disease”.
RESULTS. Behçet’s disease influences the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal inclusion causes mucosal ulcers, pain, burning, nasal obstruction, epistaxis, nasal itching and dysosmia. Nasal cartilage deformity is also reported. The higher rate of comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in BD patients may likewise be because of the complex mechanism of the disease inclining the host tissues to bacterial infections. Olfactory functions may decrease in BD. Odor identification may be lower in patients BD.
CONCLUSION. An olfactory dysfunction may be seen in patients with BD. BD patients should be evaluated for the involvement of the olfactory function and may require treatment because of a malfunction of the olfactory system that influences the quality of life. Neurological involvement associated with BD might play a more important role in causing olfactory dysfunction than mucosal involvement.
Frodita Jakimovska, Marina Davceva Cakar and Dejan Dokic
BACKGROUND. Septal deviations are usually diagnosed by a patient’s subjective complaint of nasal stuffiness and a physical examination by the otorhinolaringologist. The decision for surgery is not always based on objective measurements. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry are objective tools for assessment of nasal patency but is still a controversial subject. In our populations, there are no general accepted methods for screening patients for septal surgery.
OBJECTIVE. To analyse the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry in predicting the outcomes of septoplasty and rhinoseptoplasty and their usefulness in preoperative screening of septal deviations.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. 69 patients were included in this prospective study. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry were performed before and one year after surgery for the investigation of nasal obstruction. Several parameters were analysed before and after decongestion of the nasal mucosa. VAS (visual analogue scale) was also included for evaluation of the subjective symptom score pre- and postoperatively. After surgery, a short questionnaire was applied to investigate patients’ postoperative satisfaction.
RESULTS. The mean subjective scores of nasal patency improved significantly after surgery with 77%. Several parameters of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry were analysed with binary logistic regression, to evaluate the predictive values on the postoperative satisfaction. The preoperative decongested overall MCA (minimal cross-sectional area) on the deviation side, the decongested bilateral MCA and the decongested Flow ratio had significantly the highest impact on the postoperative satisfaction (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry as objective tools can serve as objective evidence for the efficacy of septoplasty and rhinoseptoplasty. The parameters of rhinomanometry and anterior rhinometry are useful in the preoperative screening for septal deviations and in predicting postoperative satisfaction between different degrees of nasal septal deviations.
BACKGROUND. The rigid endoscope developed by Karl Storz in 1961 led to a great advance in diagnosis and surgery and nowadays it is the gold standard in routine ENT practice. In addition, the development of video cameras has enhanced the surgical abilities as well as teaching opportunities in endoscopic sinus surgery.
OBJECTIVE. We developed a new prototype endoscope using the “chip-on-the-tip” technology. The aim of our non-clinical study was to observe and discuss the experimental data collected from laboratory tests on plastic models.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. The prototype rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope has two parts - inner and outer. The inner part includes the chip-on-the-tip camera, light source and the cable. The outer part is a metal tube ending with a 0-degree lens. We performed laboratory tests of the rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.
RESULTS. We have observed technical parameters of the rigid chip-on-the-tip in order to compare them to conventional endoscopes connected with camera head units that are standard equipment for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.
CONCLUSION. Its advantages compared to the conventional Hopkins endoscope, connected to a standard camera head, are the smaller size, weight and the necessity of only one cable instead of two, allowing easy handling.