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 Gløersen, E., Dubois, A., Copus, A. & Schürmann, C. (2005). Northern peripheral, sparsely populated regions in the EuropeanUnion . Stockholm: Nordregio.
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the EuropeanUnion? Study written by the Club de Bruxelles under the direction of Marie-Martine Buckens for the conference organised by the Club de Bruxelles on 21, 22 and 23 May 1997, in Brussels with the support of the European Commission. Club de Bruxelles, Brussels, 1–114.
Cubbage F.W., O’Laughlin J., Bullock C.S. III 1993. Forest resource policy. J. Wiley, New York, 1–562. ISBN 0-471-62245-1.
Delbeke J., Vis P. (eds.) 2015. EU Climate Policy Explained. Rout-ledge, Milton Park, 1–152. ISBN 978-92-7948-261-8.
Ellison D., Lundblad M., Petersson H
Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
fattening purposes in livestock has been banned in the EuropeanUnion (EU) since 1988, according to Council Directives 96/22/EC and 2003/74/EC ( 7 , 8 ). The steroid esters that belong to the A3 group of banned substances should not be present in biological matrices of animal origin, just as other unauthorised substances having anabolic effect included in Annex 1 of Council Directive 96/23/EC. In line with the recommendations of the designated EuropeanUnion Reference Laboratories (EURLs) which oversee and are responsible for the testing of prohibited substances in the
Justyna Baraniak, Radosław Kujawski and Marcin Ożarowski
1. Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses. Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion. L 124/21-29.
2. Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on food intended for infants and young children, food for special medical purposes, and total diet replacement for weight control and repealing Council Directive 92/52/EEC, Commission Directives 96/8/EC, 1999/21/EC, 2006/125/EC and 2006/141/EC, Directive 2009
The Barn Owl (Tyto alba) bred in 15 UTM squares (75%, n = 20) of the Kazanlak Valley (central south Bulgaria) at 33 localities (55% confirmed, 12% probable and 33% possible breeding). Its distribution in the Valley was found to be five times larger and its population size ten times greater during our study period than previously thought. Evidence of one to five breeding localities (mean 2.2±1.3) was detected in each occupied UTM square. A breeding density of 4.1 bp/100 km2 was close to the average in Central Europe. Nests inside or on metal frames and ducts were typical in the region and gave possibility for its successful breeding in most of the habitable buildings. The Barn Owls were breeding mainly in poorly maintained and abandoned buildings whose supply has not decreased markedly since the agricultural restoration started in Bulgaria after it joined the European Union and intensive industrial agriculture has resumed with EU support. Currently, it appears that Barn Owl is not threatened by a ‘housing shortageʼ over the next decade.
Janis Kazjonovs, Andrejs Sipkevics, Andris Jakovics, Andris Dancigs, Diana Bajare and Leonards Dancigs
Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU.
Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being −20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %).
The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the experimental stand is equipped with sensors which provide measurements for electricity consumption and gained heat energy.
Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1275/2008 // Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion. - No. L 339/45. (18 December 2008).
Energy Efficiency Branch, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Standby power store survey 2008-09, Interim Report, October 2008, No. 2008/12, Victoria, Australia.
International Energy Agency. Saving electricity in a hurry. - France: Jouve, 2005. - 127 pages.
Da Silva D., Cho Y-s., Rivière P. Field
Jana Jarábková, Ľubica Majstríková and Tomáš Kozolka
Rural tourism is one of the opportunities, which can positively influence productivity and incomes in rural areas. European Union set the rural development as part of its priorities. This development has been conducted through several measures aimed at education, cooperation, municipality development, ecological agriculture, diversification of economic activities, etc. Rural tourism is a result of diversification of economic activities towards non-agricultural activities. The paper focuses on analysing financial tools of support used for rural tourism development. Development projects realized in the Nitra Self-governing Region (NSR) during programming period 2007 - 2013 (plus 2 years) are evaluated. These projects have been financed through different grant schemes created by the European Union (realised by Ministries, Local Action Groups, Agricultural Paying Agency) and also by the Nitra Self-governing Region. The paper also illustrates the localisation of approved projects and their purpose.
The European Union is a representative and guardian of fundamental values that secure the guarantees of the democratic functioning of the Member States. One of the core values of the European Union and of democracy is the rule of law, which includes, inter alia, the compliance of any interference with the law and the primacy of higher laws. The basic question is whether these core values are binding on the EU legislator itself as well? In this context, further questions can be raised such as whether the territorial approach inherent in Article 174 of the Treaty, which is the basis of the European Union’s operation, to what extent it prevails in EU law? How the countryside, as a territorial unit deserving particular attention, does appear in legislation and in EU development policy? Does the legislator strive to enforce the fundamental goals set out in the Treaty – such as strengthening cohesion, mitigating territorial differences? The paper seeks to address these issues primarily on the basis of an assessment of the EU draft legislation for the post-2020 period.
Cargo turnover in ports of Latvia 1996 - 2008 / http://www.transport.lv/doc_upl/latvia_12eng.pdf
Lēvalde V. Gerhards sliecas ogļu stacijas projektu realizēt Liepājā // Dienas Biznes - (2008., 9.aprīlis) / http://www.db.lv/Default2.aspx?ArticleID=b8f655e0-35bc-4487-925c-650a5b4e3084&ref=rss
Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe // Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion - L 152/1 (June 11, 2008