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Hezhong Yuan, Wei Pan, Zhengjie Zhu, Ying Wei, Qifang Geng and Shuqing An

Abstract

The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in sediment cores collected from a representative riverine wetland located in the Huaihe River watershed, China, dramaticlly increased from the bottom to upper layer of the cores. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) suggested that heavy metals might primarily have been derived from the inflow of contaminated water from an industrial park and agricultural region. Component 1 of the PCA was dominated by Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb, while Component 2 was dominated by As. Metals’ high concentrations and EF values showed that the anthropogenic pollutants have increased sharply in recent years and reflect the continuous development of industry and agriculture in the region of the wetland, with a corresponding dramatic deterioration of the environment due to constant effluent of pollutants. Cd exerted the highest potential ecological risk of individual metals of sediment cores. Additionally, integrated RI values for all metals indicated that sediments possessed low ecological risk from the bottom to about 6 cm depth of the cores, moderate ecological risk from about 5 cm depth upwards, then considerable ecological risk from 4 cm depth to the top layer of the sediment cores, which demonstrates a continuous deterioration of environmental quality in recent years in this region.

Open access

David Zumr, Tomáš Dostál and Jan Devátý

. Water and solute transport in a cultivated silt loam soil: 1. Field observations. Vadose Zone J., 4, 3573-3586. Cox, C.A., Sarangi, A., Madramootoo, C.A., 2006. Effect of land management on runoff and soil losses from two small watersheds in St Lucia. Land Degrad. Dev., 17, 1, 55-72. Dahlke, H.E., Easton, Z.M., Lyon, W.L., Walter, M.T., Destouni, G., Steenhuis, T.S., 2011. Dissecting the variable source area concept - subsurface flow pathways and water mixing processes in a hillslope. J. Hydrol., 420-421, 125-141. Dorioz

Open access

J. Mikulka, E. Gescheidtova and K. Bartusek

-scanning technique with supervised fuzzy pixel classification. Medical Image Analysis , 14, 13-20. Stawiaski, J., Decenciere, E., Bidault, F. (2008). Interactive liver tumor segmentation using graph-cuts and watershed. MiDAS Journal (MICCAI 2008 Workshop : Grand Challenge Liver Tumor Segmentation). http://www.insight-journal.org/browse/journal/45 http://www.insight-journal.org/browse/journal/45 Abdel-Massieh, N. H., Hadhoud, M. M., Amin, K. M. (2010). Automatic liver tumor segmentation from CT scans with knowledge

Open access

Yotapakdee Teeka and Bohumil Havrland

Abstract

The irrational use of water in agriculture is often responsible for several problems concerning the depletion of water resources. Water resources sustainability has crucial for the existence of farming system which is dependent on the cropping pattern practices. This paper concerns the studies of existing water resource management and determines factors affecting decision making about water use and management within different farming systems. In these cases, a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM) has been determined that aims at allocating efficient water and land resources to farms in the Ping watershed area in northern Thailand by optimizing a set of important socio-economic objectives which depend on sustainable agricultural (rural) development. The solution was found by using two analytical steps as follows: single objective optimization and compromise programming.

These resources include: land, labour, capital, fertilizer, pesticides and irrigation water. Existing cropping pattern included the inseason rice, off season-rice, vegetables (chili, pak choi, cauliflower, long bean, cabbage), soybean and sweet corn. Under the model cropping pattern conditions the in-season rice was produced for the household consumption and specially found in irrigated areas with storage dam. The model recommended that the suitable cropping pattern of the in-season rice followed by chili and long bean increased the gross margin two times. The amount of water used for the irrigation decreased by 6.84 percent from original 1,198,904 m3 at the existing cropping pattern to 1,116,902 m3 at the model cropping pattern.

However, in the case of the irrigated areas with water gates the model showed that the suitable cropping pattern was not different from the existing ones. However, the recommended model cropping pattern as the suitable cropping pattern consisting of the inseason rice followed by vegetables, sugar cane and perennial crops such as longan increased the gross margin three times while the water use increased only by 2.25 percent from the existing cropping pattern (from 1,374,655 m3 to 1,405,582 m3 at the model cropping pattern).

In the case of the rainfed areas the model cropping pattern recommended to grow the in-season rice, tobacco and longan on farm which increased the gross margin six times. However, the water using increased slightly from the existing on-farm water consumption (101,601.2 m3) up to 680,869 m3 as linked to the model cropping pattern.

Open access

Cristiana-Maria Ciocanea, Athanasios-Alexandru Gavrilidis and Vasile Bagrinovschi

Abstract

“Iron Gates” Natural Park is located in the South-Western part of Romania and is recognized for its great diversity of ecosystems, wide variety of species and emblematic landscapes. Due to its Mediterranean climatic influences and vegetation structure, the area is a suitable habitat for the existence and development of Testudo hermanni boettgeri.

Monitoring both, the evolution of the microclimatic features in the lower Eșelnița watershed and the species behaviour, represents a useful step in order to determine if the global climate change endangers the conservation management of the tortoise.

Open access

Răzvan Voicu, Doru Bănăduc, Lee Jason Baumgartner, Liliana Voicu and Angela Curtean-Bănăduc

the status of the Danube River in Serbia: microbiological and ichthyofaunistic studies, Acta Oecologica Carpatica , IX, 151-176. 16. McKay S. K., Cooper A. R., Diebel M. W., Elkins D., Oldford G., Roghair C. and Wieferich D., 2016 ‒ Informing watershed connectivity barrier prioritization decisions: a synthesis, River Research and Applications , 33, 6, 847-862. 17. Nechifor R., Popa G.-O., Samu M., Dudu A., Bănăduc D., Costache M. and Georgescu S. E., 2017 ‒ The genetic profiles of two salmonid populations from Romania obtained through nuclear markers

Open access

Maija Rozīte and Daina Vinklere

Tourism and recreation as a driving force for forecasting biodiversity changes: Lake Engure watershed area as an example

The aim of the research was to evaluate tourism as a driving force and its pressures in the Lake Engure drainage basin area to forecast the possible long-term changes in biodiversity, in accordance with the DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses) framework, used by European Environment Agency (EEA). A map of the territory, divided into three tourism zones, was charted using secondary data sources, field research data and surveys of holiday-makers. Tourism enterprises and service providers as driving forces and the pressures created were evaluated, and statistical data on capacity of tourist accommodation, a number of people employed in the tourism industry and a number of tourists in the territory were summarised. Owners of summer houses and recreationists were surveyed in regard of their behaviour, the local services offered, the involvement of local municipality in the process and their future plans, and these factors were studied to evaluate the possible impact of second house tourism. The results indicate that tourism and recreation as a driving force is most active in the coastal zone, however, there is not a big tourist flow. In the future the territory will be mainly used for transit tourism, second-home tourism and recreation.

Open access

Dadi Feyisa, Endalkachew Kissi and Zerihun Kebebew

farmers: the case of central Highland of Oromia, Ethiopia. European Journal of Applied Sciences , 2, 25−29. Kebede, Y. & Raju S.A.J. (2011). Effect of land use/land cover change on soil properties in the Hare River Watershed, Ethiopia. The Ecoscan , An International Quarterly Journal of Environmental Sciences , 5, 69−74. Kidanu, S., Mamo, T. & Stroosnijder L. (2005). Biomass production of Eucalyptus boundary plantations and their effect on crop productivity on Ethiopian highland Vertisols. Agrofor. Syst. , 63, 281–290. DOI: 10.1007/s10457-005-5169-z

Open access

Burak Turan and Keh-Han Wang

. Catchment hydrologic response with a fully distributed triangulated irregular network model. Water Resour. Res., 40, W11102, 1-23. Kettani, E.E.-C.B., Ouazar, D., 1994. Object-oriented finite volume dam-break model. In: Proceedings of Modeling of Flood Propagation over Initially Dry Areas, Milan, Italy, pp. 186-196. Kim, J., Ivanov, V.Y., Katopodes, N.D., 2013. Modeling erosion and sedimentation coupled with hydrological and overland flow processes at the watershed scale. Water Resour. Res., 49, 5134-5154. LeVeque, R

Open access

Jelena Staburova and Una Aleksandra Bērziņa

Abstract

United Europe-China relations have a long history. For many years they have developed successfully, but not along a simple course. The main thesis of this article is that the year 2008, which is associated primarily with the onset of the financial crisis in Europe, became a watershed in the history of bilateral relations between EU and China. Over the past few years the agenda and the role of the actors, and also the content and format of discourse have changed dramatically. This article is devoted primarily to some aspects of the EU’s position in relation to China and, to a lesser extent, to the position of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Therefore the history of contacts between the two sides will be considered especially in the light of some EU publications, while China will be outside our primary area of focus. Unlike many studies on economic cooperation between EU and China, our paper will accentuate the political component of the relationship. We shall try to demonstrate that, beginning with 2008, Europe has been partly losing its status as the driving force in the EU-China dialogue. We will conclude by addressing the problem of adequate understanding of Chinese political texts, without which no political communication of Europe with China can be successful. A critical analysis of a recent document prepared by the EU eliminates some problematical points within the united Europe, which affect the effectiveness of its Chinese policy. Our method can be described as eclectic in the sense that it borrows arguments from a variety of political research techniques and terminologies (discourse analysis, historical institutionalism, engagement and stakeholder theories), as well as from sinological (by which we understand the analysis of Chinese texts in the cultural perspective) and historical approaches.