research and policy, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events , 2 (2), 189-192. Doi: 10.1080/19407963.2010.482281.  Hubbard, P. (2003). A good night out? Multiplex cinemas as sites of embodied leisure. Leisure Studies 22(3), 255-272. Doi: 10.1080/026143603200075461.  Karlsson, E. B. (2012): Retail in Rural Regions . Exploring ways to support rural shops . Bifrost: Center for Retail Studies.  Knox, P. L. & Meyer, H. (2011). Europe’s Internal Periphery. Small Towns in the Context of Reflexive Polycentrity (pp. 142-157). In
Krystian Heffner and Małgorzata Twardzik
Uģis Bratuškins and Sandra Treija
Expansion of cities and their impact areas extend also the semantic boundaries of urban ecentres, while public open space in the city centres maintain attractivity, especially within the medieval cores. The diverse functional processes that satisfy the needs of all users of urban space in general, on the one hand carry the function of circulation or communication, and on the other – relaxation or recreation. Elements of spatial organization and environment planning essential for the realization of each function differ, and depending on which of the functional processes prevails in the particular place, open space acquires either priority of communication or of recreation.
The paper focuses on the interests and needs of main groups of users of the historical city centre – Riga Old Town, states availability of adequate space, as well as sets the criteria of high-quality public open space.
Władysław Mynarski, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Michał Rozpara and Wiesław Garbaciak
leisure time and mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, respiratory diseases and cancer. The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehab. , 13:173-179. Stankiewicz M., M. Pieszko, A.Śliwińska, S. Małgorzewicz, Ł. Wierucki, T. Zdrojewski, B. Wyrzykowski, W.Łysiak-Szydłowska (2010) Obesity, knowledge of diet and healthy behaviors in children and adolescents from small towns and villages - results of Polish Project of 400 Cities. Endokrynol. Otył. Zab. Przem. Mat. , 6: 59-66. Suchomel A., D
References Ashworth G. J., 1997. Planowanie dziedzictwa (Heritage planning). In: Broński K., Purchla J. & Zuziak Z. K. (eds), Miasto historyczne. Potencjał dziedzictwa. Międzynarodowe Centrum Kultury, Kraków: 25-48. Blowers A., 1993. Planning for a sustainable environment. A report by the Town and Country Planning Association. Earthscan, London. Bonenberg W., 2007. Miejska przestrzeń kreatywna (Creative urban space). Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Poznańskiej , 10. Wydawnictwo
Ewa Labak-Mechowska and Michał Dąbrowski
Chełmno is a town in the north-western part of the Chełmno Lakeland. It is one of few towns in Poland to have fully preserved its medieval defensive walls. Its touristic and natural environs make it a popular tourist destination. The town’s location near the escarpment of the Vistula valley mean that the preserved historical structures (including the defensive walls) are under threat. A few years ago a buttress became detached and two sections of the defensive walls collapsed. One part was rebuilt (the site where the studies were conducted), while the second part remains unrestored. Bricks are also progressively coming away. This situation may be the result of several factors, although the authors claim that the most important are the geological structure and the wall foundations (which are shallow, at a depth of 1-2 m, with the wall having been built up higher in the 16th century).
As a result of suburbanization, intensification of urbanization processes in suburban areas is taking place. The suburban zone is understood to be an area located in direct neighbourhood of a city or town, related to it and being systematically transformed. It is also defined as a transient area between a village and a city/town, mainly in spatial terms (mixed forms of space development and transient settlement types). The aim of this paper is to define the attitudes of suburban local government authorities towards neighbouring city/town. In order to achieve this aim, methods of analytic description, direct observation, analysis of documents such as “Local development plans”, “Development Strategies”, “The study of causation and directions in spatial management” of suburban municipalities in the Kielce county were used.
The samples of the architectural details are the parts of depository in Ostrava form the year 2015. They are historical bricks and ceramic floor tiles from the buildings in the town Javorník (Czech Republic). The objects were dated and determined as a part of the buildings, which they are from. For these objects were prescribed the conditions to convenient placing.
Towns are of particular interest to geography which examines them in various objective and theoretical aspects. The concept of function is associated with the role which a particular town plays in the area, and this function is the entirety of socio-economic activity carried out in the town. The concept of the economic base of towns, which is used in this paper, distinguishes two groups of town inhabitants, namely such whose work directly contributes to the development of the town, the so-called primary builders (exogenous), and secondary builders (endogenous) who support the first group. This article presents the results of the study of changes in the function of 30 towns in the Silesian voivodeship in which coal mining is still carried out or has ended (18 mining towns and 12 post-mining towns). These towns have different sizes: small ones (up to 20,000 inhabitants; n=6), medium (20 to 100 thousand inhabitants; n=15), and large (with population of over 100,000 inhabitants; n=9). The study was conducted with the use of the indirect measurement of economic base method based on the location ratio, but in a modified form - i.e. the employee surplus rate. The analysis of functional changes in the mining towns of the Silesian voivodeship was performed in five aspects, in relation to: 1) the opening of the economy indicator, with the use of data concerning employment in the exogenous and endogenous group; 2) the employee surplus rate, determining the functional type of towns according to the dominant PKD [Polish Classification of Business Activities] section on the basis of the exogenous group; 3) the structure of exogenous functions of towns; 4) change of the exogenous function of towns; 5) the employee surplus rate, determining the share of section C (mining) in the exogenous function of towns. The analysis showed that in the period of 1996-2009 there has been a change in the functional type, from industrial to service type, in 8 towns; however, mining is still the primary branch of business activity in 11 towns studied, especially in small ones. Today, many service-based towns specialise in trade (n=7), and a small group of towns specialises in non-market services (n=4), which shows that the process of changes in this respect is still ongoing and the towns studied cannot be regarded as towns having a substantial share of higher-order services.
Loubna Amahdar, Abdellah Anouar, Bouchra Ababou, Luc Verschaeve and Abderraouf Hilali
In Vitro Genotoxicity of Settat Town Landfill Leachate, Morocco
With the increasing use of landfill sites, leachates produced by uncontrolled waste disposal have became a serious threat for the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of leachate and of well water sampled close to the town of Settat in Morocco using the micronucleus test and proliferation kinetics of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. We also analysed a number of physical and chemical parameters, including pH, % O2, chemical oxygen demand (COD), HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, and conductivity.
The analysis showed much higher levels of nearly all parameters than the Moroccan standard. Increased micronucleus frequencies were also found for both leachate and well water. Preliminary results indicate that both types of water are genotoxic and pose environmental and human health risk.
Marek Gális, Jela Galková and Jozef Straňák
of selected GIS extensions for the analysis of secondary landscape structure of the Handlová town. In H. Svobodová (Ed.), Geography and geoinformatics: Challenge for practise and education . Proceedings of 19th International Conference (pp. 132–140). Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Oláhová, J., Vojtek, M. & Boltižiar M. (2013). Application of geoinformation technologies for the assessment of landscape structure using landscape-ecological indexes (case study of the Handlová landslide). Tájökológiai Lapok , 11(2), 351−366. Pauková, Ž. & Eliáš P. (2010