A Long Normative History of a Statistical Category in the U.K
that circulation shapes knowledge. Knowledge circulates between different historical actors with different agendas and thus forms an important element in producing knowledges. For the idea of circulating knowledge, see Philipp Sarasin, »Was ist Wissensgeschichte?«, in: Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 36 (2011), p. 159–172. In the case of the ›Head of Household‹ it was one specific tool that circulated between different historical actors and produced knowledge.
This specific tool leads us to the administrative component of the
their works, in two complementary ways. First, this critical approach enables them to understand the position they occupy in the academic field, thus creating awareness that can lead them to question the intellectual categories they have used to study administrative history as well as their research practices. Second, the theory of fields provides the intellectual tools to conduct empirical studies that present generalizable conclusions. If this has been a goal more easily achieved in the social sciences, historical studies have struggled more with the possibility of
consist of placing the emphasis on operations and cultural techniques, as they rely on symbols, persons, and material artifacts, interchange them, and are responsible for investigating and punishing someone as a querulous person. Of course, a media history of the excessive sense of justice deals with people who are labeled querulous – that goes without saying. However, one dare not fall into the trap of overlooking the cultural tools and media which are hidden behind litigious paranoia.
The ›Creation‹ of Querulanten
Before querulency was investigated as a form of
of the vaccine story: the organisation of administrative correspondence, the censorship of medical information, the forms furnished by the administration for registering vaccinations, or the engravings of vaccine pustules. It is through these »details«, these »little tools of knowledge« Peter Becker, William Clark, »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker, William Clark (eds.), Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, p. 1–34. that the proof of vaccine’s perfection was administered and biopolitics exercised
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
). Algorithms become its tool of international sentiment expression alignment. Whatever the purpose and chosen method of TSA, making its epistemic posture explicit is essential for its use and the interpretation of its results.
If an algorithm is to attribute sentiments to data of any type, it needs a predefined discrete and finite set of sentiment categories. Whether such a set can be constructed at all is of course in dispute, The complexity of this psychological disputatio ramifies in neuroscience, biology, linguistics, anthropology and philosophy. Darwin proposed the
between public service and subjects and between state and society. I use this concept to pinpoint the situational, interactional character of communication that neither extended to an emotional community nor comprised an emotional space. The participants in these interactions shared emotional situations but could belong to different emotional communities defined by generation, class and education. On emotional community as a conceptual tool, cf. Barbara H. Rosenwein: »Problems and Methods in the History of Emotions«, in: Passions in Context 1 (2010), pp. 1–32, at pp. 10
. Whether there were attempts similar to Eger’s at making welfare administration a tool for nationalizing Bohemia’s population in other multilingual crown lands, such as Styria or Carinthia, where similar processes of national segregation had happened before 1914, requires further research. Martin Moll: Kein Burgfrieden. Der deutsch-slowenische Nationalitätenkonflikt in der Steiermark 1900–1918, Innsbruck 2007; Andreas Moritsch: »Modernisierung und nationale Differenzierung bis 1918«, in: Andreas Moritsch (ed.): Austria-Slovenica. Die Kärntner Slovenen und die Nation
Behörden und Antragsteller/innen im Streit um Erwerbsmöglichkeiten
. Essays, Leipzig 2008. Zwar enthalten Akten verschiedener Behörden häufig Briefe und protokollierte Aussagen Vgl. dazu etwa etwa Becker, »Sprachvollzug«, S. 17; Peter Becker, William Clark, »Introduction«, in: Dies. (Hg.), Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, S.1–34. jener, die auf solche Weisen einen Lebensunterhalt finden wollten, selten oder kaum hingegen finden sich lebensgeschichtliche Schilderungen solcher Praktiken, die unabhängig von diesem behördlichen Kontext entstanden sind. Abgesehen vom
Der Bezirk als Verwaltungsraum im Großherzogtum Baden zwischen 1809 und den 1870er Jahren
Rüdiger von Krosigk
InformationsbeSchaffung und -übermittlung wie Protokollen, Fragebögen, Formularen vgl. Becker: »Beschreiben«, S. 397–400; Holenstein: »Gute Policey und Information des Staates«, S. 205–206; Peter Becker / William Clark: »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker / William Clark (Hg.): Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, S. 1–34. Zur Information als Kategorie historischer Forschung vgl. Arndt Brendecke / Markus Friedrich / Susanne Friedrich: »Information als Kategorie historischer Forschung. Heuristik, Etymologie und Abgrenzung vom
institutions that had functioned in the annexed States for so many years , and to introduce the Piedmontese administrative system everywhere . Cited from Umberto Pototschnig: Ľunificazione amministrativa delle province venete, Vicenza 1967, p. 9.
In the opinion of the journalist, the mistake was to have believed that it would be possible to administer a large structure such as the new Italian state by applying tools that had been used to administer the small Piedmontese kingdom:
The cabinet governing Piedmont at the time of the annexations […] applied the laws of