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Edgars Zarembo, Arnis Engelis and Aigars Petersons

Diagnosis and Management of Blunt Pancreatic Trauma in Children

There are still diagnostics problems and variety of opinions about tactics in the treatment of blunt pancreatic injurys. The methods of surgery treatments are more and more replacing the methods of endoscopy and conservative therapy. There is a remarkable diference in the tactic of treatment between adults and children because of the anatomical physiological reasons. Delayed diagnosis of this wounding is connected with heightened morbidity and mortality.

Handlebars injury is the most frequent mechanism of the trauma. The most determinant role in the diagnostics has active examination tactic and arsenal of visual diagnostics methods. Therapy approach must be individualized depending from the hemodynamic status, seriosity of injury, existence of associated injuries and the experience in the institution. After traumatic pseudocysts can be successfully drained in US control or endoscopic to stomach. Children with such injuries must be concentrated if possible in the specialized centers.

Open access

Andrew S. Millard and Chae-Deug Yi

Abstract

Discourse on the Six Party Talks has focused solely on denuclearisation. Through the power struggles of the members and the refusal of the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (DPRK) to return to negotiations, the Six Party Talks have been stalled since 2008. Due to current increased tensions and the use of brinkmanship tactics the Talks must be restarted, albeit under a reformed shape. This paper analyses the potential role of the EU in furthering the peace process in Northeast Asia. This paper suggests that the EU needs to be more assertive and the Talks should focus on building trust and cooperation, not on the DPRK’s nuclear program. With its impartiality, experience in integration and use of soft power, the EU can act as an effective mediator building trust.

Open access

Viktorija Kazakovskaja

The Development of Dialogue Competence in Children (Russian Data Corpus)

The debate regarding linguistic or communicative competence has not subsided since the publication of N. Chomsky's keynote works (Chomsky 1965; 1968). The structure of competence, its aspects, levels and components, and their content and correlation (with regard to both native and foreign language acquisition) are actively discussed in many diverse scientific fields and schools (Pinker, Jackendoff, 2005; Lehmann, 2007). The study suggests that conversational competence, as well as the linguistic-system competence, constitutes a relatively independent component of communicative competence. It also plays an important role in the development of communicative competence, as long as participation in a dialogue serves as a trigger for other types of linguistic competence.

This paper explores the following hypothesis. Although the language-system and dialogue components show traces of parallel development, their divergence may be observed at the early stages of speech ontogenesis. At this time the development of dialogue competence outstrips the development of other linguistic skills and is a catalyst for the formation of communicative competence generally. This study has two primary aims: to investigate some of the normal aspects of the acquisition of dialogue competence (based primarily on communicative failures), and to discover the conductive factors and basic prerequisites for the acquisition of dialogue skills.

The observations are based on the Russian language corpora, including longitudinal audio and video recordings and diary notes (Child Language Database of the Chair of Child Language1). The longitudinal method is the principal method employed in this investigation. Dialogue acquisition is analyzed regarding the extent to which the process relates to the functions of dialogue units initiated by questions.

Analysis of the dialogue skills of children at pre-verbal and early-verbal stages has shown that the communicative failures or breakdowns (just like the child's general mistakes) mark the development of communicative competence in a dialogue and the correlation of different components. Simultaneously developing specific strategies (those of partial understanding, participation and "the end of phrase") enable the child to participate or imitate participation in a dialogue whilst lacking cognitive and linguistic-system skills. The language behavior tactics of the mother are the leading factor in the development of the child's dialogue competence and these tactics, in many respects, are characterized by a specific use of questions2.

Open access

Ilona Isaieva

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of organizing and conducting trainings in the system of professional training of personnel of the Federal Police of Germany (BPOL). The main focus is on the organization of training on the use of weapons, coercive means, situational training. It has been found out that during the exercises of firing proficiency not only the skills of marksmanship are worked out, but also various complex situational trainings are carried out, which reflect the situations of daily activities of the police and require them to take appropriate action (the correct contention resolution in terms of tactics of action and the lawfulness and decision making on the use or non-use of weapons). As a result of the use of general scientific methods for the analysis, synthesis and generalization of information of directive / documents, orders, scientific and didactic sources as well as studying and generalizing the pedagogical experience of organizing trainings for BPOL personnel, it was found that in the development of situational trainings and training on the use of weapons, coercive means and own security, the trainers of BPOL were guided by both traditional “linear” and “nonlinear” pedagogical principles for organization of training exercises. On the basis of the generalization of the research results, it has been established that the situations that are developed for such trainings are constantly updated and correspond to the realities of time. At the heart of all scenarios, there are nine standard police cases: police communication, personal identification, detention, search of persons, transportation of detainees, vehicle control, first medical aid, collection of materials for identification and its entry into the database, search of premises and belongings. While assessing the actions of a policeman in solving a situation, the trainers take into account: communication skills (both with the partner and with the “opponent”), tactics of action, compliance with the requirements of self-defence, the correct use of coercive means, the lawfulness of all measures taken, the provision of first medical care, achievement of a goal (solution of a situation).

Open access

Krzysztof Bartosz and Stanisław Głuszek

Need Assessment for Gastroscopy in Patients with Gall-Stones

Cholelithiasis (gall-stones) occurs in 13% of the Polish population. Patients affected with gall-stones notify non-specific symptoms caused by pathology of the upper segment of the digestive track which coexists with gall-stones.

The aim of the study was to analyze the risk of occurrence of pathological changes, within the part of the digestive track in patients affected with gall-stones, to assess the correlation between data of medical histories of patients and results of gastroscopy based diagnosis; to devise tactics of alterations to the planned measures in case a clinically significant disease has been diagnosed.

Material and methods. The study group comprised 615 patients, qualified for cholecystectomy, with symptomatic gall-stones, verified by an ultrasound diagnosis. After being interviewed and examined, all the patients were subjected to gastroscopy, and when necessary biopsy was performed. The statistical analysis was performed using an multifactorial analysis (Pearson's correlation coefficient for categorical variables).

Results. Among 615 patients, the subjects in the study, we found 183 ones (29.7%) with a normal upper digestive tract, we found pathology of the upper digestive system in 70.3% cases (432 patients). Serious pathology resulting in changing the planned treatment was found in 83 patients (13.5%): among those four ones had gastric carcinoma, sixty-three ones suffering from chronic peptic ulcer disease (gastric or/and duodenal), twelve patients were affected with hemorrhagic gastritis, four patients had GERD C and D. In a group of 83 patients cholocystectomy was postponed and the diagnosed disease was treated. Four patients were operated on because of gastric cancer, with intention of cure.

Conclusions. 1. Routine gastroscopy performed before cholecystectomy is justified. The percentage of abnormalities diagnosed during gastroscopy proved the above mentioned thesis. 2. Medical histories and an object examination do not allow to state explicitly that there is another disease of the upper part of the digestive system which coexists with gall-stones. In case of diagnosing the other pathology it is necessary to take into consideration an alteration of tactics of management: to delay an operation and treat the other disease which has been diagnosed.

Open access

Ihor Bloshchynskyi

Abstract

Professional training of the agents of the US Border Patrol Special Operations Groups has been substantiated in the article. Special attention has been paid to revealing Selection and Training Course (STC) of the Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC) and the Border Patrol Search, Trauma, and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR). It has been determined that BORTAC STC lasts over a month and candidates who pass the initial testing must then complete a timed, six-mile ruck march with a weighted pack, swimming, treading water and drown-proofing. As indicated in the article, in case of successful completion of the testing phase, candidates undergo weeks of intense training in tactics and airmobile operations, operational planning and weapon skills. As mentioned further, BORSTAR STC foresees a physical abilities test: a minimum of 7 pull-ups, 40 push-ups, 60 sit-ups (in 2 minutes), 1,5 mile run in 11 minutes or less, and a 250-yard swim. The following disciplines are taught during the course: the basic incident management system and incident command system, technical rescue framing, land navigation, tactical medicine framing, swift-water rescue technician framing etc. Besides, the curricula of such disciplines as “Tactics and special training”, “Topography”, “Weapons practice", “Tactical medicine", “Physical framing” (104 academic hours and 88 hours of classrooms lessons) for the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine mobile forces framing have been presented. The SBGSU mobile personnel framing program lies in a thorough study of the specifics of service management and carrying out of service duties, as well as learning of the SBGSU mobile units ’ personnel actions during protection of the state border, personal security and the use of force. The main objective of the framing course is to acquire the special knowledge and practical skills necessary for performing the main tasks on the state border protection, which are prescribed by professional duties. At the same time, the focus is made on the practical component of the actions of the border guards. In addition, they improve knowledge and skills during the framing process.

Open access

Goran Munivrana, Lidija Zekan Petrinović and Miran Kondrič

References Cabello Manrique D, Gonzáles-Badillo JJ. Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton. Brit J Sport Med, 2003; 37(1): 62-66. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.37.1.62 Djokić Z. Structure of competitors’ activities of top table tennis players. Table Tennis Sciences, 2001; 4&5: 74-91 Djokić Z. Differences in tactics in game of top players and other factors of success in top table tennis, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Table Tennis Federation Sports Science Congress, pp 138-144. Zhang XP, Xiao, DD, Dong Y, (Eds.); 2007

Open access

Elfrida Manoku and Mimoza Kalia

Abstract

After the late 1970s the marketing discipline has known a considerable expansion and application not only in private sector but also in public or non-profit sector. Currently the debate is focused on how to better integrate the marketing concept and marketing function into the activities of government organizations as means of increasing the effectiveness of the delivery of public policy and citizens satisfaction. Public marketing is a new concept for the Albanian reality and very slowly is entering into the management approach. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how much is known and accepted the concept of marketing in the Albanian public sector and if this level of acceptance or rejection is reflected in the use of marketing strategies and tactics as instruments of public management.

After a critical review of the literature about the last trends and research in this issue, qualitative methods are used through a case study in General Directorate of Taxation in Albania. In depth semi-structured interviews with several senior directors and officers were conducted to see the level of perceptions and practices thorough the major departments of this Institution. From the analysis of data gathered resulted that marketing is mostly equated with public relations function and was considered unnecessary and as a significant consumer of public funds. A number of recommendations are given on how to build an efficient marketing model for the General Directorate of Taxation in order to help increasing efficiency and quality of service to citizens.

Open access

Augustyn Bańka and Karol Orłowski

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present study results concerning the structure of teacher Machiavellianism. Machiavellianism was researched extensively throughout the last 40 years as a personality feature comprising traits related to leadership manipulation tactics. Psychology describes Machiavellianism as a part of the universal model called “the dark triad of personality” alongside with subclinical narcissism, subclinical psychopathy and low empathy. The teacher Machiavellianism model presented in this article, as opposed to the universal models, strongly accentuates the context-specific variables related to the organization of life in a school, alongside with personality variables. To achieve a new insight into the mechanism of how teacher Machiavellianism is generated, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used, which incorporates personality variables such as: self-effi cacy, disposition for gratitude, values, one’s personal resources, professional burnout, alongside context-specific variables like: organizational culture, work attitude, tenure and specialization in the tasks performed. Results of two studies are shown, discussing the empirical structure of teacher Machiavellianism components in relation to the initial theoretical model.

Open access

Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Adam Kantanista, Monika Ciekot, Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska and Szymon Szwed

Health-related intensity profiles of Physical Education classes at different phases of the teaching/learning process

Study aim: To assess the intensities of three types of physical education (PE) classes corresponding to the phases of the teaching/learning process: Type 1 - acquiring and developing skills, Type 2 - selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional principles and Type 3 - evaluating and improving performance skills.

Material and methods: A cohort of 350 schoolchildren, aged 13 years, from 3 selected urban schools in Poznań participated in the study. A total of 202 PE lessons was involved using heart rate (HR) monitors, one randomly selected subject per every class. Four intensity zones were assumed (<140, 140 - 159, 160 - 179, ≥180) and exercising time spent within each zone was measured.

Results: Type 2 classes induced the most pronounced cardio-respiratory responses irrespectively of the kind of sport activities thus enhancing the cardio-respiratory fitness.

Conclusions: Type 2 activities ought to be taken into consideration when designing PE curricula in order to avoid long runs of inadequate physiological stimuli.