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Open access

Gheorghe Minculete and Polixenia Olar

Abstract

In a complex, modern and flexible economy in a continuous and rapid evolution, individual consumers, on the one hand, and organizational buyers, on the other hand, have more and more financial resources that allow them to act in the conditions of using the methods , the modern means and systems applicable in the practice of acquisitions that have expanded considerably in the digital environment. Digital marketing, originally called "electronic marketing" or "internet marketing", first appeared in the form of various techniques implemented by pioneering companies that sold their products through the internet in the early 1990s. According to specialists, the definition of traditional marketing can easily be adapted to digital marketing, seen as a set of strategies and tactics that are executed through digital channels to achieve corporate goals (often to increase shareholder profits) in a time and budget defined period of time

Open access

Samuel Keith Duncan

Abstract

Using a combined Huizingian-Bourdieu framework, this paper analyses the significance of sport’s transformation into a business and how the prevailing business structure that defines professional sport has influenced the ‘lived experience’ of those playing at sport’s elite level. Furthermore, this paper highlights how the actions of players, coaches and other participants serve to reinforce, legitimise and normalise the business characteristics of sport’s dominant business structure.

Importantly, this paper illuminates how the professionalization of sport corrupts the act of playing and indeed gives rise to play tactics, such as ‘sledging’, which both reflects the increased seriousness of sport and, in its very execution, further reinforces the dominant business structures of professional sport, all the while corrupting the essence of sport – play.

In doing so we are challenged to consider how society’s fields could be different in structure, and in the ‘lived experience’ within the field.

Open access

Ihor Bloshchynskyi

Abstract

Professional training of the agents of the US Border Patrol Special Operations Groups has been substantiated in the article. Special attention has been paid to revealing Selection and Training Course (STC) of the Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC) and the Border Patrol Search, Trauma, and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR). It has been determined that BORTAC STC lasts over a month and candidates who pass the initial testing must then complete a timed, six-mile ruck march with a weighted pack, swimming, treading water and drown-proofing. As indicated in the article, in case of successful completion of the testing phase, candidates undergo weeks of intense training in tactics and airmobile operations, operational planning and weapon skills. As mentioned further, BORSTAR STC foresees a physical abilities test: a minimum of 7 pull-ups, 40 push-ups, 60 sit-ups (in 2 minutes), 1,5 mile run in 11 minutes or less, and a 250-yard swim. The following disciplines are taught during the course: the basic incident management system and incident command system, technical rescue framing, land navigation, tactical medicine framing, swift-water rescue technician framing etc. Besides, the curricula of such disciplines as “Tactics and special training”, “Topography”, “Weapons practice", “Tactical medicine", “Physical framing” (104 academic hours and 88 hours of classrooms lessons) for the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine mobile forces framing have been presented. The SBGSU mobile personnel framing program lies in a thorough study of the specifics of service management and carrying out of service duties, as well as learning of the SBGSU mobile units ’ personnel actions during protection of the state border, personal security and the use of force. The main objective of the framing course is to acquire the special knowledge and practical skills necessary for performing the main tasks on the state border protection, which are prescribed by professional duties. At the same time, the focus is made on the practical component of the actions of the border guards. In addition, they improve knowledge and skills during the framing process.

Open access

Viktorija Kazakovskaja

The Development of Dialogue Competence in Children (Russian Data Corpus)

The debate regarding linguistic or communicative competence has not subsided since the publication of N. Chomsky's keynote works (Chomsky 1965; 1968). The structure of competence, its aspects, levels and components, and their content and correlation (with regard to both native and foreign language acquisition) are actively discussed in many diverse scientific fields and schools (Pinker, Jackendoff, 2005; Lehmann, 2007). The study suggests that conversational competence, as well as the linguistic-system competence, constitutes a relatively independent component of communicative competence. It also plays an important role in the development of communicative competence, as long as participation in a dialogue serves as a trigger for other types of linguistic competence.

This paper explores the following hypothesis. Although the language-system and dialogue components show traces of parallel development, their divergence may be observed at the early stages of speech ontogenesis. At this time the development of dialogue competence outstrips the development of other linguistic skills and is a catalyst for the formation of communicative competence generally. This study has two primary aims: to investigate some of the normal aspects of the acquisition of dialogue competence (based primarily on communicative failures), and to discover the conductive factors and basic prerequisites for the acquisition of dialogue skills.

The observations are based on the Russian language corpora, including longitudinal audio and video recordings and diary notes (Child Language Database of the Chair of Child Language1). The longitudinal method is the principal method employed in this investigation. Dialogue acquisition is analyzed regarding the extent to which the process relates to the functions of dialogue units initiated by questions.

Analysis of the dialogue skills of children at pre-verbal and early-verbal stages has shown that the communicative failures or breakdowns (just like the child's general mistakes) mark the development of communicative competence in a dialogue and the correlation of different components. Simultaneously developing specific strategies (those of partial understanding, participation and "the end of phrase") enable the child to participate or imitate participation in a dialogue whilst lacking cognitive and linguistic-system skills. The language behavior tactics of the mother are the leading factor in the development of the child's dialogue competence and these tactics, in many respects, are characterized by a specific use of questions2.

Open access

Ilona Isaieva

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of organizing and conducting trainings in the system of professional training of personnel of the Federal Police of Germany (BPOL). The main focus is on the organization of training on the use of weapons, coercive means, situational training. It has been found out that during the exercises of firing proficiency not only the skills of marksmanship are worked out, but also various complex situational trainings are carried out, which reflect the situations of daily activities of the police and require them to take appropriate action (the correct contention resolution in terms of tactics of action and the lawfulness and decision making on the use or non-use of weapons). As a result of the use of general scientific methods for the analysis, synthesis and generalization of information of directive / documents, orders, scientific and didactic sources as well as studying and generalizing the pedagogical experience of organizing trainings for BPOL personnel, it was found that in the development of situational trainings and training on the use of weapons, coercive means and own security, the trainers of BPOL were guided by both traditional “linear” and “nonlinear” pedagogical principles for organization of training exercises. On the basis of the generalization of the research results, it has been established that the situations that are developed for such trainings are constantly updated and correspond to the realities of time. At the heart of all scenarios, there are nine standard police cases: police communication, personal identification, detention, search of persons, transportation of detainees, vehicle control, first medical aid, collection of materials for identification and its entry into the database, search of premises and belongings. While assessing the actions of a policeman in solving a situation, the trainers take into account: communication skills (both with the partner and with the “opponent”), tactics of action, compliance with the requirements of self-defence, the correct use of coercive means, the lawfulness of all measures taken, the provision of first medical care, achievement of a goal (solution of a situation).

Open access

Krzysztof Bartosz and Stanisław Głuszek

Need Assessment for Gastroscopy in Patients with Gall-Stones

Cholelithiasis (gall-stones) occurs in 13% of the Polish population. Patients affected with gall-stones notify non-specific symptoms caused by pathology of the upper segment of the digestive track which coexists with gall-stones.

The aim of the study was to analyze the risk of occurrence of pathological changes, within the part of the digestive track in patients affected with gall-stones, to assess the correlation between data of medical histories of patients and results of gastroscopy based diagnosis; to devise tactics of alterations to the planned measures in case a clinically significant disease has been diagnosed.

Material and methods. The study group comprised 615 patients, qualified for cholecystectomy, with symptomatic gall-stones, verified by an ultrasound diagnosis. After being interviewed and examined, all the patients were subjected to gastroscopy, and when necessary biopsy was performed. The statistical analysis was performed using an multifactorial analysis (Pearson's correlation coefficient for categorical variables).

Results. Among 615 patients, the subjects in the study, we found 183 ones (29.7%) with a normal upper digestive tract, we found pathology of the upper digestive system in 70.3% cases (432 patients). Serious pathology resulting in changing the planned treatment was found in 83 patients (13.5%): among those four ones had gastric carcinoma, sixty-three ones suffering from chronic peptic ulcer disease (gastric or/and duodenal), twelve patients were affected with hemorrhagic gastritis, four patients had GERD C and D. In a group of 83 patients cholocystectomy was postponed and the diagnosed disease was treated. Four patients were operated on because of gastric cancer, with intention of cure.

Conclusions. 1. Routine gastroscopy performed before cholecystectomy is justified. The percentage of abnormalities diagnosed during gastroscopy proved the above mentioned thesis. 2. Medical histories and an object examination do not allow to state explicitly that there is another disease of the upper part of the digestive system which coexists with gall-stones. In case of diagnosing the other pathology it is necessary to take into consideration an alteration of tactics of management: to delay an operation and treat the other disease which has been diagnosed.

Open access

Goran Munivrana, Lidija Zekan Petrinović and Miran Kondrič

References Cabello Manrique D, Gonzáles-Badillo JJ. Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton. Brit J Sport Med, 2003; 37(1): 62-66. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.37.1.62 Djokić Z. Structure of competitors’ activities of top table tennis players. Table Tennis Sciences, 2001; 4&5: 74-91 Djokić Z. Differences in tactics in game of top players and other factors of success in top table tennis, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Table Tennis Federation Sports Science Congress, pp 138-144. Zhang XP, Xiao, DD, Dong Y, (Eds.); 2007

Open access

Sarbani Chaudhury and Bhaskar Sengupta

Abstract

Adaptation, a complex bilingual and bicultural process, is further problematised in a colonial scenario inflected by burgeoning nationalism and imperialist counter-oppression. Nagendranath Bose’s Karnabir (1884/85), the second extant Bengali translation of Macbeth was written after the First War of Indian Independence in 1857 and its aftermath - the formation of predominantly upper and middle class nationalist organisations that spearheaded the freedom movement. To curb anti-colonial activities in the cultural sphere, the British introduced repressive measures like the Theatre Censorship Act and the Vernacular Press Act. Bengal experienced a revival of Hinduism paradoxically augmented by the nationalist ethos and the divisive tactics of British rule that fostered communalism. This article investigates the contingencies and implications of domesticating and othering Macbeth at this juncture and the collaborative/oppositional strategies of the vernacular text vis-à-vis colonial discourse. The generic problems of negotiating tragedy in a literary tradition marked by its absence are compounded by the socio-linguistic limitations of a Sanskritised adaptation. The conflicted nature of the cultural indigenisation evidenced in Karnabir is explored with special focus on the nature of generic, linguistic and religious acculturation, issues of nomenclature and epistemology, as well as the political and ideological negotiations that the target text engages in with the source text and the intended audience.

Open access

Alexandra-Florenţa Costin

Abstract

Accentuated by globalization, the overlapping and the dissemination of values, beliefs and perceptions pertaining to different cultures have reached an unprecedented level, phenomenon which, with the contribution of new technologies and the international media, led to the creation of a new global culture. The constant movement of large masses of people with different personal goals has brought into contact individuals coming from various cultures, who found themselves in the position of trying to understand, filter and harmonize new cultural practices as well as developing skills for coping with them; due to widespread businesses spanning national borders, negotiation practitioners frequently encounter business opponents from unfamiliar cultures and resort to strategies and tactics meant to cross cultural boundaries and the obstacles of the business context. The paper is an overview of concepts and findings regarding the origin of the global culture as cultural co-existence in the international space, with an emphasis on the concepts of cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural competence, cultural variables and their impact on cross-cultural negotiations.

Open access

Olena Semenog

Abstract

On the example of propaedeutic educational course “Introduction to Slavic Philology” features of future teachers’ professional training of cross-cultural dialogue are considered. Among the main objectives of the course, attention is focused on native language and other languages admirer’s tolerance education, students’ skills formation of making linguistic and cultural comments on folklore, literary texts and discourses; building a strategy and tactics of intercultural communication in accordance to national psychology.

The examples of tokens, “ukrainisms” in Slavic languages and phrases are presented; also, it is considered Slavists as tolerant intermediaries towards intercultural cooperation of countries and peoples, the need for skills of translation activity that caused the crosscultural dialogue.

Based on scientific and encyclopedic sources analysis, educational course testing is making conclusion that Slavic philology is a powerful tool for cross-cultural dialogue. It contains of big factual material that promotes understanding the process of formation and development of ethno-cultural communities in time and space, formation of human values and national identity of supranational cross-cultural thought, ways of tolerant behavior, language understanding and usage. Also it creates conditions for the realization of individuality as Ukrainian language and other languages, cultures, intellectual and emotional contacts between these languages and cultures.