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Open access

Ionut Alin Cîrdei

Abstract

In the last years the focus of the military specialists changed from the asymmetrical threats to the hybrid threats, seen as one of the main challenge for the security in the 21st century. The increased attention paid to hybrid threats is due to the events that took place in Ukraine, Syria and other confrontation areas and which highlighted the vulnerability of the modern societies and modern armies toward this type of actions. The use of hybrid type tactics can ensure the achievement of the main objectives of an international actor, with a low effort, usually without using the force, and can deny to the target/victim the possibility to take any defensive actions. The hybrid warfare can represent the war of the 21st century, a new type of direct or indirect confrontation, with effects on short and medium term, impossible to be anticipated.

Open access

Silviu Nate and Aurelian Rațiu

Abstract

Information warfare has gained new valences, although some states have historical roots in developing subversive and manipulative tactics; the action pattern is supported today by the use of new information propagation vectors, access to new technologies, and a mix of themes with political, economic, military, cultural and social collective interest. The aim of the propaganda is that the aggressor demoralizes and minimizes the trust of citizens in domestic institutions and policies. Hypotheses and work themes are combined with false news, counterfeit media, capable of creating ambiguity. On such a media of open sources, non-kinetic threats and elements of the hybrid war manifest themselves in the information space and create the ambiguity much hoped to diminish the establishment that reflects the aggressor’s opposition. The study presents relevant cases and recommendations for members of the Euro-Atlantic community related to the management of Russian information actions.

Open access

Ilona Isaieva

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of organizing and conducting trainings in the system of professional training of personnel of the Federal Police of Germany (BPOL). The main focus is on the organization of training on the use of weapons, coercive means, situational training. It has been found out that during the exercises of firing proficiency not only the skills of marksmanship are worked out, but also various complex situational trainings are carried out, which reflect the situations of daily activities of the police and require them to take appropriate action (the correct contention resolution in terms of tactics of action and the lawfulness and decision making on the use or non-use of weapons). As a result of the use of general scientific methods for the analysis, synthesis and generalization of information of directive / documents, orders, scientific and didactic sources as well as studying and generalizing the pedagogical experience of organizing trainings for BPOL personnel, it was found that in the development of situational trainings and training on the use of weapons, coercive means and own security, the trainers of BPOL were guided by both traditional “linear” and “nonlinear” pedagogical principles for organization of training exercises. On the basis of the generalization of the research results, it has been established that the situations that are developed for such trainings are constantly updated and correspond to the realities of time. At the heart of all scenarios, there are nine standard police cases: police communication, personal identification, detention, search of persons, transportation of detainees, vehicle control, first medical aid, collection of materials for identification and its entry into the database, search of premises and belongings. While assessing the actions of a policeman in solving a situation, the trainers take into account: communication skills (both with the partner and with the “opponent”), tactics of action, compliance with the requirements of self-defence, the correct use of coercive means, the lawfulness of all measures taken, the provision of first medical care, achievement of a goal (solution of a situation).

Open access

Ihor Bloshchynskyi

Abstract

Professional training of the agents of the US Border Patrol Special Operations Groups has been substantiated in the article. Special attention has been paid to revealing Selection and Training Course (STC) of the Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC) and the Border Patrol Search, Trauma, and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR). It has been determined that BORTAC STC lasts over a month and candidates who pass the initial testing must then complete a timed, six-mile ruck march with a weighted pack, swimming, treading water and drown-proofing. As indicated in the article, in case of successful completion of the testing phase, candidates undergo weeks of intense training in tactics and airmobile operations, operational planning and weapon skills. As mentioned further, BORSTAR STC foresees a physical abilities test: a minimum of 7 pull-ups, 40 push-ups, 60 sit-ups (in 2 minutes), 1,5 mile run in 11 minutes or less, and a 250-yard swim. The following disciplines are taught during the course: the basic incident management system and incident command system, technical rescue framing, land navigation, tactical medicine framing, swift-water rescue technician framing etc. Besides, the curricula of such disciplines as “Tactics and special training”, “Topography”, “Weapons practice", “Tactical medicine", “Physical framing” (104 academic hours and 88 hours of classrooms lessons) for the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine mobile forces framing have been presented. The SBGSU mobile personnel framing program lies in a thorough study of the specifics of service management and carrying out of service duties, as well as learning of the SBGSU mobile units ’ personnel actions during protection of the state border, personal security and the use of force. The main objective of the framing course is to acquire the special knowledge and practical skills necessary for performing the main tasks on the state border protection, which are prescribed by professional duties. At the same time, the focus is made on the practical component of the actions of the border guards. In addition, they improve knowledge and skills during the framing process.

Open access

Viktorija Kazakovskaja

The Development of Dialogue Competence in Children (Russian Data Corpus)

The debate regarding linguistic or communicative competence has not subsided since the publication of N. Chomsky's keynote works (Chomsky 1965; 1968). The structure of competence, its aspects, levels and components, and their content and correlation (with regard to both native and foreign language acquisition) are actively discussed in many diverse scientific fields and schools (Pinker, Jackendoff, 2005; Lehmann, 2007). The study suggests that conversational competence, as well as the linguistic-system competence, constitutes a relatively independent component of communicative competence. It also plays an important role in the development of communicative competence, as long as participation in a dialogue serves as a trigger for other types of linguistic competence.

This paper explores the following hypothesis. Although the language-system and dialogue components show traces of parallel development, their divergence may be observed at the early stages of speech ontogenesis. At this time the development of dialogue competence outstrips the development of other linguistic skills and is a catalyst for the formation of communicative competence generally. This study has two primary aims: to investigate some of the normal aspects of the acquisition of dialogue competence (based primarily on communicative failures), and to discover the conductive factors and basic prerequisites for the acquisition of dialogue skills.

The observations are based on the Russian language corpora, including longitudinal audio and video recordings and diary notes (Child Language Database of the Chair of Child Language1). The longitudinal method is the principal method employed in this investigation. Dialogue acquisition is analyzed regarding the extent to which the process relates to the functions of dialogue units initiated by questions.

Analysis of the dialogue skills of children at pre-verbal and early-verbal stages has shown that the communicative failures or breakdowns (just like the child's general mistakes) mark the development of communicative competence in a dialogue and the correlation of different components. Simultaneously developing specific strategies (those of partial understanding, participation and "the end of phrase") enable the child to participate or imitate participation in a dialogue whilst lacking cognitive and linguistic-system skills. The language behavior tactics of the mother are the leading factor in the development of the child's dialogue competence and these tactics, in many respects, are characterized by a specific use of questions2.

Open access

Krzysztof Bartosz and Stanisław Głuszek

Need Assessment for Gastroscopy in Patients with Gall-Stones

Cholelithiasis (gall-stones) occurs in 13% of the Polish population. Patients affected with gall-stones notify non-specific symptoms caused by pathology of the upper segment of the digestive track which coexists with gall-stones.

The aim of the study was to analyze the risk of occurrence of pathological changes, within the part of the digestive track in patients affected with gall-stones, to assess the correlation between data of medical histories of patients and results of gastroscopy based diagnosis; to devise tactics of alterations to the planned measures in case a clinically significant disease has been diagnosed.

Material and methods. The study group comprised 615 patients, qualified for cholecystectomy, with symptomatic gall-stones, verified by an ultrasound diagnosis. After being interviewed and examined, all the patients were subjected to gastroscopy, and when necessary biopsy was performed. The statistical analysis was performed using an multifactorial analysis (Pearson's correlation coefficient for categorical variables).

Results. Among 615 patients, the subjects in the study, we found 183 ones (29.7%) with a normal upper digestive tract, we found pathology of the upper digestive system in 70.3% cases (432 patients). Serious pathology resulting in changing the planned treatment was found in 83 patients (13.5%): among those four ones had gastric carcinoma, sixty-three ones suffering from chronic peptic ulcer disease (gastric or/and duodenal), twelve patients were affected with hemorrhagic gastritis, four patients had GERD C and D. In a group of 83 patients cholocystectomy was postponed and the diagnosed disease was treated. Four patients were operated on because of gastric cancer, with intention of cure.

Conclusions. 1. Routine gastroscopy performed before cholecystectomy is justified. The percentage of abnormalities diagnosed during gastroscopy proved the above mentioned thesis. 2. Medical histories and an object examination do not allow to state explicitly that there is another disease of the upper part of the digestive system which coexists with gall-stones. In case of diagnosing the other pathology it is necessary to take into consideration an alteration of tactics of management: to delay an operation and treat the other disease which has been diagnosed.

Open access

Goran Munivrana, Lidija Zekan Petrinović and Miran Kondrič

References Cabello Manrique D, Gonzáles-Badillo JJ. Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton. Brit J Sport Med, 2003; 37(1): 62-66. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.37.1.62 Djokić Z. Structure of competitors’ activities of top table tennis players. Table Tennis Sciences, 2001; 4&5: 74-91 Djokić Z. Differences in tactics in game of top players and other factors of success in top table tennis, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Table Tennis Federation Sports Science Congress, pp 138-144. Zhang XP, Xiao, DD, Dong Y, (Eds.); 2007

Open access

Virgilijus Pugačiauskas

Abstract

One of the distinctive features of Russia’s confrontation with the West over the 2014-2016 period is the intensification of Russian propaganda both in foreign countries and within the state. Lithuania, whose relations with a major neighbour were not normalized, and which openly supported Ukraine’s position, attracted the additional attention of Russian mass media in which an incitement to anti- Lithuanian moods was bolstered. In this case, it is endeavoured to generally describe how the mass media (television and newspapers) played a role in contriving a social construct and ascertain the Lithuanian quantitative characteristics which are presented in Russian mass media. Referring to the analysis, one can distinguish three prevailing negative images of Lithuania - that is, Russophobic and anti-Russian; a falsifier of history; and a failing and non-influential state. These images, being consistently and purposefully exploited in Russian information space, almost with no alternative sources, turned into undeniable truth for the majority of Russian citizens. This provides the Kremlin with vast possibilities of manipulation in constructing the tactics and strategy of geopolitical instability. On the other hand, one should not forget that such a negative picture of Lithuania serves as a way in which Russian society justifies Putin’s political system and demonstrates its superiority over the values of the Western world.

Open access

Zoltán Szenek and Zsolt Végvári

Abstract

We investigated relationships among bustard presence data as response as well as properties of habitat patches such as shape, size, type of land use and landscape connectivity in 2015, employing bustard occurrence data in Körös-Maros National Park (KMNP hereafter). Additionally, we aimed to present a geometrical approach of habitat choice in animals, focusing on geometric properties rather than vegetation structure. Here we applied landscape metrics approach, providing landscape classification by analysing spatial patterns in potentially important landscape objects, disregarding linear constructions. Our findings show insignificant differences between shape metrics of selected and non-selected habitat patches, in line with previous studies concluding that bustards choose habitats based on habitat type classes rather than on geometric properties. Further, our results indicate that the original habitats of the study species, adapted to extensive, open steppes, became strongly fragmented, resulting in the absence of large contiguous areas. Within the study area, landscape connectivity values represent optimal habitat conditions, probably as a result of highly patchy structure of the landscape and relatively small nearest neighbour distances of habitat patches. Thus, our findings also indicate that Great Bustards adapted to modified landscape structures. Our landscape analytical approach provides a methodological framework which can be applied on habitat selection tactics in a number of species of key conservation importance.

Open access

Jevgeņijs Stepanovs, Agnese Ozoliņa, Vita Rovīte, Biruta Mamaja and Indulis Vanags

Abstract

Microvascular free flap surgery, has become an important part of reconstructive surgery during the last decades, as it allows closure of various tissue defects and recovery of organs function. Despite surgical progress resulting in high rates of transferred tissue survival, the risk of pedicle vessels thrombosis still remains a significant problem. A total of 108 articles from Pubmed and Science Direct databases published in 2005–2015 were analysed. This review of the literature assessed the influence of patient-dependent risk factors and different perioperative management strategies on development of microvascular free flap thrombosis. Sufficient evidence for risk associated with hypercoagulation, advanced age and certain comorbidities was identified. Presently, rotational thromboelastometry allows early hypercoagulability detection, significantly changing further patient management. Identification of flap thrombosis promoting surgery-related aspects is also essential in preoperative settings. Choice of anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia, administration of different types and amounts of fluids, blood products and vasoactive agents, temperature control are no less important in perioperative anaesthesiological management. More attention should be focused on timely preoperative evaluation of patient-dependent risk factors, which can influence anaesthesiological and surgical tactics during and after microvascular free flap surgery. Perioperative anaesthesiological management strategy continues to be controversial and therefore it should be performed based on thrombotic risk assessment and patient individual needs, thus improving flap survival rates and surgical outcome.