., Autry, C. E., & Hanson, C. S. (2001). Meaning of sport to adults with physical disabilities: A disability sport camp experience. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18 (1), 95-114. Baake, T. (1978). Judo for the blind: A path to self-confidence. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 3 , 141-142. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman and Co. Blinde, E. M. & McCallister, S. G. (1998). Listening to the voices of students with physical disabilities: Experiences
Consumers construct and maintain self-concepts through the use of branded consumer products. Yet product choice not only reflects an actual or desired image of the self but can also directly influence a person’s sense of self and even boost self-esteem. The aesthetics of a product is an attribute that has the power to transform how consumers perceive themselves. The mere act of choosing a beautiful product over a less good-looking one affirms people’s sense of self - who they are and what their values are. It goes beyond personal image building and self-presentation; its impact is also turned inwards. Choice of high design works as a unique form of affirmation. It works unconsciously, and high design may even be a particularly powerful form of affirmation precisely because its relationship to the self and one’s values is not obvious. And design is more powerful than other features in this respect. Comfort and ease of use, taste and brand do not have the same self-affirming quality as design. It is not simply that “treating” oneself or going for the pleasurable option has an affirming effect; it is specific to the choice of aesthetics.
Research in the study of affect in L2 learning acknowledges that attention to the social dimension can ‘improve language teaching and learning’ and that negative emotions such as anxiety, fear, stress, anger or depression may compromise our learning potential, whereas positive emotions such as self-esteem and empathy can ease the language learning process (Arnold and Brown 1). For the majority of learners, the classroom environment should be a place which encourages interaction and minimises negative emotions such as anxiety, which could interfere with such interaction. This study seeks to describe episodes of humour during peer oral interaction which may help generate a positive social dimension amongst learners.
Irena Dzwonkowska and Alicja Żak-Łykus
-Compassion: Conceptualizations, Correlates, & Interventions. Review of General Psychology, Vol. 15. No. 4, 289-303 Barnard, L. K., Curry, J. F. (2012). The relationship of clergy burnout to self-compassion and other personality dimensions. Pastoral Psychology, 61, 149-163 Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1- 44. Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., Boden, J
References Emerson, R. W. (1841). The Essay on Self-Reliance. New York: The Roycrofters, Book from the collection of Harvard University (Collection Americana), Copyright by Elbert Hubbard 1908, available online at https://archive.org/stream/essayonselfreli00emergoog#page/n5/mode/2u p Little, D. (1991). Learner Autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin: Authentik Language Learning Resources Ltd. Meirieu, Ph. (1991). Le choix d’éduquer: éthique et pédagogie. Paris: ESF éditeur. Noll, J
Liljana Siljanovska and Stefani Stojcevska
References Agger B. 2004, The Virtual Self: A Contemporary Sociology, e-book Campbell Norah, Identity and Consumption Lecture, week 5 Cooley C. 1922, Human Nature and the Social Order, e-book Dolich I. 1969, Congruence Relationships between Self Images and Product Brands, e-book Gecas V. and Schwalbe M. 1983, Beyond the Looking Glass Self: Social Structure and Efficacy-Based Self Esteem, e-book Grubb E. and Stern B. 1971, Self Concept and Significant Others, e
Oana-Antonia Ilie and Ileana-Gentilia Metea
We are always confronted with situations in which prevailing socially is strictly a matter of conversational technique. First, empathy and the mirroring of the other's emotional states and gestures is a must of efficient communication. Secondly, in order to prevent conflict situations one must learn to communicate assertively. Empathic communication is the ability or talent of knowing what other people feel and is essential when we want to produce or generate feedback. Assertive communication refers to the ability to express feelings and choices in a way that the self-esteem and feelings of others are not affected. A person who has these communicative competences will know to express wishes and feelings, to refuse and express opinions without offending the others, while maintaining a favorable impression and self-control.
Somayyeh Ghorbani, Seyed Ebrahim Mirshah Jafari and Fereydoon Sharifian
the valuing process for developing innovative practices for values education toward international understanding and a culture of peace. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, 2002. 183 p. (UNESCO-APNIEVE Sourcebook, No. 2). United Nations Industrial Development Organization (2002). UNIDO Competencies. http://www.unido.org Yoo, J. H. (2016). The effect of professional development on teacher efficacy and teachers self-analysis of their efficacy change. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 18 (1), 84–94. Zhao
-62). New York: Academic Press. Burger, J. M. (1999). The foot-in-the-door compliance procedure: A multiple process analysis and review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3 , 303-325. Burger, J. M., & Caldwell, D. F. (2003). The effects of monetary incentives and labeling on the foot-in-the-door effect: Evidence for a self-perception process. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 25 , 235-241. Campbell, J. D. (1990). Self-esteem and clarity of the self-concept. Journal of Personality
Exposing organisms to aversive events which they cannot control might result in motivational, cognitive, emotional, and self-esteem deficits. These deficits are called symptoms of helplessness and are the core part of learned helplessness theory. Many studies have empirically analysed the theory on the individual level. The current study focuses on the learned helplessness in the context of organisational change. The object of the study is one media company in Estonia, which conducted a large restructuring during the 2008 economic crisis. The result shows that there exists an organisational gap when it comes to the estimates of top management and employees. The key to the problem appeared to be the middle management, who were unable to effectively manage their subordinates as they were busy themselves coping with the change.