-things-considered decision for the matter at hand.” and the erosion of the rule of law reflects the erosion of exactly this sort of reasoning—perhaps along with reasoning as a whole. Thus is lost the appreciation of one of the pragmatic values of tolerating suboptimal results: Such powerful respect for rules may have the unfortunate effect of such results, but also tends to prevent even worse consequences flowing from the abuses by political and legal authorities of their own discretion.
I share the increasingly common if not clichéd view that we have reached yet another new low in the
Robert J. Galavan, Denis Harrington and Felicity Kelliher
. One attempt to move the theory towards a method of investigation is provided by MacLean et al. (2002) with the first comprehensive articulation of the five key features of mode 2 enquiry in what they call their 5mode2 framework and it is from this point that we try to take up the challenge to transcend Mode 1 in our teaching and research ( Kelliher et al., 2010 ). Whether we have reached mode 1.5, Mode 2, Mode 3, Hodgkinson’s Pragmatic Science ( Hodgkinson et al., 2001: S42 ) or Pettigrew’s double hurdle (2001) is unclear. The intention of our paper is not to
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Allcott, H., 2011. Social norms and energy conservation. Journal of Public Economics, 95(9-10), 1082-1095. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.03.003
Allcott, H., and Mullainathan, S., 2010. Behavior and Energy Policy. Science, 327(5970), 1204-1220. doi
cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 25 , 140–165. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.11.001
Burke, L. A., & Williams, J. M. (2008). Developing Young Thinkers: An intervention aimed to enhance children’s thinking skills. Thinking Skills and Creativity , 3 , 104–124. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2008.01.001
Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, S. W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and
”: open doors to goods and services from Africa, promote investment into infrastructure and train entrepreneurs to enhance local business capacities ( Obama 2009 ). The 2012 strategy aimed to “boost broad-based and inclusive economic growth, including through trade and investment” so as Africa can be “the world’s next major economic success story”. To achieve this goal, five actions were outlined as crucial: to encourage legal, regulatory and institutional reforms in order to promote an enabling environment for trade and investment; to improve economic governance; to
The literature on sovereign default is abundant and uniformly admits that since the government cannot be forced to repay its debts, the explanation of why in spite of this it usually honors its obligations, is not straightforward. The literature that aims to explain this phenomenon points to several factors that affect the probability of sovereign default.
A thorough summary of the literature on sovereign default can be found for example in Panizza et al ., (2009); hence, we provide below just a very brief recapitulation of the main arguments, pointing to the
Joanna Maria Badach, Anna Stasiak and Andrzej Baranowski
What impact do urban movements have on the public debate on the spatial development of the city?
What is the scope of their cooperation with municipal authorities?
Theoretical background and explanation of concepts
City management is a very pragmatic process aimed at resolving specific problems. As Benjamin Barber points out, at city level many social, environmental and economic issues can be solved much more effectively than at national level, which may lead to a new vision of governance in a globalising world ( Barber 2014 ). A
flattening process, and then undergoes the fabrication process producing IC chips. The focus of this research project is on the silicon wafer manufacturing.
The silicon wafer manufacturing consists of four key value-adding processes: slicing, lapping, chemical etching and polishing. The primary aim of the slicing process is to define the crystal structure of the wafer, finding the best possible shape. The wafer is subjected to high-pressure cutting, to achieve correct wafer thickness, but on the downside, it causes high surface damage and contamination. The second stage
Kristina Grünenberg and Anna Mikaela v. Freiesleben
. The article relates to the overall theme of this special issue through its focus on the intersection between urban policy discourses and practices that aim at promoting social cohesion on the one hand, and a focus on ethnicity on the other. The article looks into the specific way in which an agenda of socio-cultural encounters and mixing, based on, for example, urban planning research, is put into practice. We argue that the particular notion of mixing developed in the urban regeneration projects and practices, which are the focus of this article, are tightly linked
Despite the noticeable need to undertake action designed to improve the situation of degraded urban spaces, the concept of revitalisation, also referred to as urban regeneration, has until recently been interpreted in various ways. It was primarily understood as the renovation or modernisation of buildings and public spaces. This understanding probably resulted from the lack of a comprehensive statutory definition. One of the first Polish definitions referred to urban regeneration as: ‘a process of continuous actions, the aim of which is to