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F. Khoshsokhan, M. Babalar, M. Fatahi and A. Poormeidani

introduced plant populations. Oecologia 144: 1-11. Farsi M., Zolala J., 2003 - Introduction to plant biotechnology.Editors:H.S. Chawla.Translated by:M. Farsi, J. Zolala/Mashhad/Ferdowsi University press. Ghahreman A., 1994 - Plant systematics: cormophytes of Iran. Vol. 3, Tehran, Iran University Press. Hamrick J.L., Godt M.J.W., 1989 - Allozyme diversity in plant species. In: Brown A.H.D., Clegg M.T., Kahler A.L., Weir B.S., editors. Plant Population Genetics, Breeding and Genetic Resources. Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp

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M. Kobayashi, K. Kitamura, T. Matsui and S. Kawano

for plant populations. Heredity 52: 273-283. DUNCAN, R. P. and G. H. STEWART (1991): The temporal and spatial analysis of tree age distributions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21: 1703-1710. DAVIS, B. J. (1964): Disk electrophoresis II: method and application to human serum proteins. Annals of New York Academy for Science, 121: 404-427. GOUDET, J. (2002): FSTAT, a Program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices, version 2.9.3.2. University of Lausanne, Lausanne. Switzerland. Available from URL

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Witold Wilczyński and Piotr Wilczyński

Population of American Cities: 1950-2009

Contrary to the industrial epoch, cities have been interpreted in the last fifty years as the places facing the greatest economic and social problems. A contrasting view has emerged only recently that takes cities as sites of economic dynamism and social vitality. The paper offers evidence on population change for 118 greatest cities of the United States of America to assess how their fortunes have changed from the 1950s to 2009. Considerable diversity of experience was revealed and seven categories of cities have been distinguished as far as their population change patterns are concerned. These categories range from the continuous growth from 1950 until today to continuous decline. The most dynamic cities are located in the Sun Belt and they are relatively small and new.

On the opposite, the biggest and old industrial centres of the Rust Belt have been losing inhabitants. In general, the pattern of population change shows close relationship with the economic situation and in particular, is connected with the structural changes in society and economy, namely the structural shifts toward more services-oriented economy, and smaller households.

Essentially the paper offers the historical outline of the population changes in the biggest American urban centres. It should be seen as an introduction necessary for the more advanced studies concerning the issues of employment, incomes, ethnic composition, and various social problems which could explain the changing fortunes of particular cities.

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Andrejs Vanags, Ilze Strumfa, Andris Gardovskis, Inga Melbarde-Gorkusa, Arnis Abolins, Genadijs Trofimovics and Janis Gardovskis

population and hospital screening in hereditary cancer detection // Collection of Scientific papers 2008, Riga Stradiņš University, 2009; 31-37 Vasen HF, Watson P, Mecklin JP, Jass JR, Green JS, Nomizu T, Müller H, Lynch HT. The epidemiology of endometrial cancer in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer // Anticancer Res, 1994; 14: 1675-1678

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Daniela Szymańska, Jadwiga Biegańska and Anna Gil

References Długosz, Z. 2002: "Próba określenia stanu i tendencji procesu starzenia się ludności Europy w świetle wybranych mierników", in: Szymańska, D., Kostulska-Grzelak, E. (eds.), Biuletyn Geograficzny , 1/2002, Toruń: Wyd. UMK, p. 35-42. Długosz, Z. 2003: ‘The level and dynamics of population ageing process on the example of demographic situation in Europe’, in: Szymańska, D., Kostulska-Grzelak, E. ed., Bulletin of Geography (Socio-economic Series) , 2/2003, Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus University

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Dariusz Wysocki

. 1992a. Age and foraging success in European Blackbirds: variation between and within individuals. Anim. Behav. 43: 885-894. Desrochers A. 1992b. Age-related differences in reproduction by European Blackbirds: restraint or constraint. Ecology 73, 3: 1128-1131. Desrochers A., Magrath R. D. 1993. Age-specific fecundity in European blackbirds (Turdus merula): individual and population trends. Auk 110, 2: 255-263. Figuerola J., Gutierrez R. 2000. Why do juvenile Moustached Warblers have

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Giovanni Amori, Valentina De Silvestro, Paolo Ciucci and Luca Luiselli

References Akaike, H. (1973) Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Proceeding of IEEE International Symposium On Information Theory, Pages 267-281. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, Hungary. Amori, G., Locasciulli, O., Tuccinardi, P. & Riga, F. (2000) Ecological structure of a population of Chlethrionomys glareolus in central Italy: an eight-year study. Polish Journal of Ecology, 48, 125-132. Amori, G. & Luiselli, L. (2011a) Growth patterns in free-ranging yellownecked wood mice

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Wanda Bacieczko and Agnieszka Borcz

after insect herbivory or mechanical injury on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Environ. Entomol. 37(5): 1332-1343. Farkas Á. & Zajácz E. 2007. Nectar production for the Hungarian honey industry. The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 1(2): 125-151. Farmer J., Price S. & Bell C. 1986. Population, temperature, and substrate influences on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed germination. Weed Science 34(4): 525-528. Fordyce J. & Malcolm S. 2000. Specialist weevil, Rhyssomatus lineaticollis, does not

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Liliya Karachurina and Nikita Mkrtchyan

Biegańska, J. editors, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, No. 17. Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus University, pp. 5-12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org//10.2478/v10089-012-0001-9 Brown, D. and Schafft, K., 2002: Population deconcentration in Hungary during the post-socialist transformation. In: Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 18 Issue 3, pp. 233-244. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00046-8 Degórski, M., 2006: Editorial spatial structure - some problems of the Core and Peripheral regions in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Komornicki

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Igbudu Ujiro and Erhabor Igbinosa Norris

References Erhabor, N.I & Oronsaye D (2014). Global warming, a scourge already evident in Nigeria. Journal of Human Kinetics, Health and Environmental Education, 3(1), 198-210. Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) (2014). Impact, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change AR 5 phase 1 report: London: Cambridge University Press. Jiang, L. & Hardee, K. (2009). How do recent population trends matter to climate change. Available at http